Home BIOLOGY TOPIC 4: TRANSPORTATION OF MINERALS OF LIVING THINGS | BIOLOGY FORM 2

TOPIC 4: TRANSPORTATION OF MINERALS OF LIVING THINGS | BIOLOGY FORM 2

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TRANSPORTATION OF MINERALS OF LIVING THINGS
TRANSPORTATION OF MINERALS OF LIVING THINGS

TOPIC 4: TRANSPORTATION OF MINERALS OF LIVING THINGS | BIOLOGY FORM 2

The Concept of Gaseous Exchange

Organs Responsible for Gaseous Exchange in Living Organisms
Identify organs responsible for gaseous exchange in living organisms
Organs responsible for gaseous exchange in living organisms include the following:

TRANSPORTATION OF MINERALS OF LIVING THINGS
ORGANISM RESPIRATORY SURFACE
Amoeba Cell membrane
Insects Tracheal system
Spider Book lung
Fish Gills
Plants Leaves, stems, roots
Amphibians Skin, gills and lungs
Mammals Lungs
Birds Lungs
reptiles Lungs
Features of Respiratory Surface

They are thin to reduce diffusion distance

They are moist to dissolve gaseous so that they dissolve and diffuse in solution form

They are highly braced, folded or flattened in order to increase the surface area for gaseous exchange

TRANSPORTATION OF MINERALS OF LIVING THINGS

They are close to efficient transport and exchange easily by the cells

They are well ventilated so that gaseous passes easily

The Concept of Gaseous Exchange

Explain the concept of gaseous exchange
Gaseous exchange refers to the movement of oxygen and carbon dioxide across the respiratory surface.
Is the process through which respiratory gaseous
are passed through the respiratory surface.
Respiratory surface are
specialized organs for gaseous exchange.

TRANSPORTATION OF MINERALS OF LIVING THINGS
Gaseous exchange takes place
through a process of diffusion.
Disorders of the Respiratory System
Disorders of the Respiratory System
Mention disorders of the respiratory system

TRANSPORTATION OF MINERALS OF LIVING THINGS
Disorders of the Respiratory System include the following:

PNEUMONIA

BRONCHITIS

ASTHMA

LUNG CANCER

EMPHYSEMA

TUBERCULOSIS

Causes, Symptoms and Effects of the Disorders of the Respiratory System

TRANSPORTATION OF MINERALS OF LIVING THINGS
Explain causes, symptoms and effects of the disorders of the respiratory system
PNEUMONIA
Pneumonia
is inflammation of the lung. It is caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi
or by inhaling chemical toxins or irritants. Pneumonia is normally
followed by other illnesses such as cold or flu.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF PNEUMONIA

Fever

Chills

TRANSPORTATION OF MINERALS OF LIVING THINGS

Shortness of breath associated with pain

Increase of mucus production

Cough

PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF PNEUMONIA

Staying warm

Avoiding overcrowded areas

Avoiding cold food and drinks, hot drinks are preferred more as they loosen secretions

TRANSPORTATION OF MINERALS OF LIVING THINGS

Get treatment as early as possible since it is curable by antibiotics

BRONCHITIS
Bacteria,
viruses and inhaling of irritating substances can cause the lining of
the respiratory system to become inflamed.
This causes an infection
called bronchitis.
TRANSPORTATION OF MINERALS OF LIVING THINGS
Bronchitis can be acute or chronic.
ACUTE BRONCHITIS
This is caused by whooping cough or recurrent attacks of influenza; smoking can also cause acute bronchitis.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF ACUTE BRONCHITITS

Pain in the chest

Rapid breathing

Fever

Coughing

TRANSPORTATION OF MINERALS OF LIVING THINGS

Headache

CHRONIC BRONCHITIS
Heavy smoking and recurrent acute bronchitis cause chronic Bronchitis.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF CHRONIC BRONCHITIS

Coughing with the production of thick sputum

Breathing difficulties

PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF CHRONIC BRONCHITIS

Avoiding smoking

Avoid very smoky or dusty areas

TRANSPORTATION OF MINERALS OF LIVING THINGS

Live in a well-ventilated house

Keep your body warm

Seek medical help

ASTHMA
Asthma
is characterized by inflamed and constricted airways. The narrowing of
the airways restricts the flow of air into the lungs.
Asthma can be caused by:

TRANSPORTATION OF MINERALS OF LIVING THINGS

Allergic reactions to dust, pollen, spores or animal fur

Herediroty diseases of the respiratory system

Extremely cold weather

Frequent viral or bacteria lung infection

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF ASTHMA

Narrowing of bronchioles resulting in breathing difficulties and a wheezing or hissing sound when breathing

Coughing

Shortness of breath

TRANSPORTATION OF MINERALS OF LIVING THINGS

Excessive production of mucus

Dilation of blood vessels leading to low blood pressure, low blood pressure can be fatal

Chest tightness

PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF ASTHMA

Avoid allergens (things that cause allergenic reaction)

Get treatment for respiratory infections as early as possible

Keep the body warm

Muscle relaxants in the form of sprays, pills and injections are used to prevent the narrowing of bronchitis

LUNG CANCER
The
main cause of lung cancer is smoking.

TRANSPORTATION OF MINERALS OF LIVING THINGS
The nicotine in cigarette smoke
stops the cilia in the trachea from expelling foreign materials leading
to respiratory infection.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF LUNG CANCER

Chest pain

Breathing difficulty

Weight Loss

Persistent Cough

TRANSPORTATION OF MINERALS OF LIVING THINGS

Abnormal Production of Mucus

PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF LUNG CANCER

Stop smoking

There is no cure for cancer. However chemotherapy and physiotherapy are used to control the disease

EMPHYSEMA
This
is a lung disease, which results from destruction of the structure
supporting the alveoli leading to these collapse.

TRANSPORTATION OF MINERALS OF LIVING THINGS
This significantly
reduces the surface area available for gaseous exchange.
CAUSES OF EMPHYSEMA

Mainly cigarette smoke

Air pollution

Hereditary

Old age

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF EMPHYSEMA

Shortness of breath

Coughing

Obstructive lung disease

Difficulties when breathing especially during exercise

Wheezing during breathing

PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF EMPHYSEMA

Avoid cigarette smoking and exposure to smoke

Lung surgery is usually done to relieve the symptoms

TRANSPORTATION OF MINERALS OF LIVING THINGS

Use of medical drugs

In severe cases, lung transplant is necessary

TUBERCULOSIS

Tuberculosis
is highly infections disease.

The causal organism for TB is one of the
strains of bacteria belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

TRANSPORTATION OF MINERALS OF LIVING THINGS

Tuberculosis can be spread from one person to another person, when the
bacteria become airborne.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF TUBERCULOSIS

Cough

Fever

Weight Loss

Loss of appetite

Disorders of the Respiratory System and HIV/AIDS
Relate disorders of the respiratory system and HIV/AIDS
Tuberculosis
is the most common opportunistic infection associated with HIV
worldwide.

TRANSPORTATION OF MINERALS OF LIVING THINGS
Tuberculosis is an infection by the tuberculosis bacterium
that predominantly affects the lungs, but it can spread through the
blood and lymph nodes to the rest of the body in people with HIV.
The
disease can strike people with HIV no matter what the level of the CD4
count, which means that TB can often occur years before other problems
associated with HIV develop.
Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia (PCP)
This
is the most common opportunistic infection that occurs with AIDS the
fungus that causes the PCP infection is spread through breathing or
coughing.

TRANSPORTATION OF MINERALS OF LIVING THINGS
Symptoms include cough, fever, trouble breathing and loss of
weight.
Cryptococci Meningitis
This
is caused by fungus and it is the most common central nervous system
infection associated with HIV.
Meningitis is an inflammation of the
membranes and fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord.

TRANSPORTATION OF MINERALS OF LIVING THINGS
Ways of Preventing and Controlling Disorders of the Respiratory System
Suggest ways of preventing and controlling disorders of the respiratory system
Suggest other ways of preventing and controlling disorders of the respiratory system.

TRANSPORTATION OF MINERALS OF LIVING THINGS

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