Independence refers to the total liberation of man from poverty, ignorance, disease, exploitation and oppression. Such liberation can be achieved, if African political systems can enable their people to plan their economic development and attain prosperity.
Since independence; African government have attempted various ways of bringing about real independence by improving communication system and expanding education, yet the whole it has proved very difficult for most of African countries to achieve real independence, partly due to colonial legacy.
This refers to the long lasting effects which African states inherited from colonialism at independence.
There are many effects but the outstanding ones are the following;
Effects on the African economies
Export oriented economies.
African countries are still exporting raw materials (cash crops and minerals) and importing manufactured goods from the developed countries. African countries produced what they did not consume and consumed what they did not produce. This is a typical feature of distorted economy.
Colonial African countries specialized in the production of one majority commodity. Cocoa in Ghana, copper in Zambia and sisal in Tanzania. The danger of this is that market prices may fluctuate any time causing a disadvantage to the producer country.
Subsistence peasant agriculture.
Since independence, there have been so fundamental attempts made to mechanize agricultural sector. The production in agricultural sector has qualitative and quantitative low because the main tool of production was the hand hoe.
Poor transport system.
Post-colonial state inherited a poor transport system, most of the roads and railways are still concentrated in production areas, with this type of transport system, and it was very difficult to attain real development.
Small and weak industrial sector.
During the colonial period, the capitalist powers destroyed the African traditional industries so as to make sure that Africa is remaining the market for European manufactured goods and the producer of raw materials. The colonial powers only established import substitution industry and semi processing plant. Africa today has consumer producer industries with these industries; it is very hard to achieve real development.
African culture has been despised
It has been substituted by western values, production and consumption patterns, music and dance. As a measure to control the deterioration of African culture in Tanganyika, there was establishment of ministry of education and culture in 1962 so as to revive and initiate all that was useless in the colonial pattern.
Distortion of political systems of African states
The colonialists encouraged ethnicism and tribalism; they did so in order to discourage tribal unities or affinities which could emanate into potential threats to the colonial state. This exercise was in accordance with the colonial policy of divide and rule.
Class and class structure.
In post colonial Africa, classes have mostly or often being associated with racial grouping were the elites, middle class and the working class stand on racial lines for example the elites and the middle class have continued to dominate commerce while the African majority became peasants and members of the working class.
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT IN TANZANIA SINCE INDEPENDENCE
There were various changes in the political field that took place in Tanzania after independence. For example: constitutional changes and the introduction of multi – party politics.
THE CONSTITUTION OF TANZANIA
The constitution is the system of laws and principles that a state or an organization is governed by. The constitution of a country is a supreme law of a state, it‟s more important than any other law in the country. The constitution of Tanzania was ratified in 1977. Before the current constitution, Tanzania has had three constitutions i.e.; The Independence Constitution (1961), The Republican Constitution of (1962) and the interim constitution of Tanganyika and Zanzibar.
THE INDEPENDENCE CONSTITUTION (1961 – 1962)
After the attainment of independence, Tanganyika adopted the first constitution that was based on the west minister model with exclusion of the bill of rights. This constitution defined the governor general as the representative of the queen was the head of state. The executive was led by the first minister who was chosen from the majority party.
THE REPUBLICAN CONSTITUTION (1962 – 1964)
In 1962, the parliament, which comprised of only TANU members, formed an assembly and drastically revised the 1961 constitution, most important was the establishment of a strong presidential system. The new president was now given the former roles of the governor general and those of the first minister. He was also given the power to choose a vice president and ministers. The president also had power to dismiss the parliament under certain conditions.
INTERIM CONSTITUTION (1962 – 1977)
In 1964 Tanganyika and Zanzibar united to form Tanzania. The constitution of the new born country was based on Tanganyika‟s 1962 republican constitution which was modified according to the agreements between TANU and the Afro Shiraz party. These agreements had been ratified under the name, “Articles of Union” and became part of the new constitution as “Acts of Union”.
The most notable feature of the acts of union was the establishment of the double government structure that is also part of Tanzanians current constitution. This structure included one government for the union and one independent government for Zanzibar. The Zanzibar‟s government included its own parliament and president. The president of Zanzibar also served as vice president of the union.
PERMANENT CONSTITUTION (1977 – To date)
After the formation of CCM in 1977, the permanent constitution was approved. This constitution essentially confronts the main principles of the republican and interim constitution that is strong presidential double government structure and a single party.
Since 1977, several amendments have been made to the original constitution; many of these are related to the relationship between the united government and the Zanzibar government.
Significance of constitutional changes to the political development of Tanzania
There were various effects of the constitution changes to the political development in Tanzania
Liberation from partial independence.
The 1962 constitutional change liberated Tanzania from partial political independence. The country was still under the control of the Queen of England who was represented by the governor general in the country. The 1962 constitution saw the establishment of a constituent assembly that introduced the post of a president who was a Tanzanian.
Introduction of ujamaa.
The 1967 change, introduced a political ideology of Ujamaa (African Socialism) and self reliance. This provided a political guideline in which the countries development would be attained.
Ujamaa was one of the two important principles of Arusha Declaration. It aimed at creating a truly socialist state where the society was classless. Ujamaa emphasized absence of exploitation of man by man. The principle aimed at putting the major means of production under the control of peasants and workers.
Introduction of one party system.
The banning of multiparty politics was significant in creating a solidified and united state so that it could be possible to achieve development. Multiparty politics was seen as recipe for disunity and could invite foreign interaction in the country.
Reintroduction of multi party.
The 1962 reintroduction of multiparty politics brought openness of the government and created freedom of press, speech and accountability of different actors in the political system of Tanzania.
It would be noted that one of the reasons for the re-introduction of multiparty was the pressure from the donor community.
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN TANZANIA SINCE INDEPENDENCE
Since independence Tanzania has tried different ways to achieve development, but in the whole, the country is still finding it very difficult to achieve real growth and development. The following are the challenges of Tanzania’s economic development
The absence of adequate capital is one of the crucial factors that have hindered development in the region. African countries rely on loans given by the developed countries, but these loans have conditions attached and came in small trickles thus not able to support development in Africa.
Poor transport system.
Existence of poor transport systems which were mainly concentrated in productive areas led Tanzania to fail to achieve the goals of multiparty.
High levels of illiteracy are one of the factors that have contributed significantly to under development of Tanzania. The colonial education system provided education to a few people along racial and religious lines thus leaving the majority of the people illiterate. Low levels of literacy leads to limited number of skilled people in Tanzania which does not promote development.
Corruption/ embezzlement of the government funds.
Corruption is one of the major factors that have hindered real development in Tanzania. Government officials especially the presidents have misused public funds. Many governments in Africa, Tanzania inclusively have run bankrupt because of corruption and mismanagement.
Introduction of socialist ideology.
At the time of independence, Tanzania chooses socialism and self reliance. The government introduced codes that were similar or common in the socialist world including one party system and common ownership of property. This practice cut off Tanzania from the western world and the situation was worsening by the collapse of Soviet Union.
Ever since independence, there have been several conflicts, these conflicts rose from the non-important issues. However, they have consumed a lot of money and resources. The examples of the border wars are those between Tanzania and Uganda (1978 – 1979), Tanzania, and Malawi (1972).
Massive unemployment is a situation thrown in the countries attempt to realize economic development. Many students who complete universities and colleges do not get employment due to few job opportunities to make matters worse; most of those who find higher education are job seekers and not job creators. Massive unemployment forces people to live the country hence brain drain.
The health system in the country is still inadequate to sustain or guarantee all health ends. The doctors, hospitals, dispensaries and health centers are not enough especially in rural and some urban areas. Poor health services forces people to search for services outside the country which are usually expensive thus depleting the meager resources.
Neo colonialism is one of the major problems that hinder development in the country. Tanzania depends on loans and grants from the developed countries but these facilities have strings attached which are always to the advantage of the developed countries.
THE ECONOMIC SITUATION OF TANZANIA SINCE INDEPENDENCE
In 1970‟s and 1980‟s independence many African states faced economic crisis whereby they failed to provide basic necessities to their people.
During this time, foreign debt and drought were the main factors that hindered economic development. Tanzania was also hit by the economic crisis of 1970‟s.
There were various factors that contributed to this crisis in Tanzania as follows;
Long drought season.
There was a prolonged drought in Tanzania especially between 1981 and 1984. This drought hit the agricultural sector which was the main sector of the economy. There was a sharp fall in agricultural production which affected the revenue earnings of the country since it depended on the export of agricultural products.
The oil crisis of 1976.
The oil crisis of 1976 was the major factor that contributed to the economic crisis in Tanzania. There was an increase in oil prices which increased the costs of production hence depleting the limited resources of the country. The resources spent on purchasing oil could have been used to finance other sectors of the economy.
The war against Idd Amin.
The war against Idd Amin is one of the factors that played a great role in causing the economic crisis in Tanzania. There was a full scale war in 1978 between Tanzania and Uganda, where by Tanzania spent a lot of resources financing the war in which resources would have been used to finance the economy. After the war the economy of Tanzania had been shattered.
The collapse of east African community in 1977.
The collapse of East African community in 1977 worsens the economic crisis in Tanzania. The special treatment given to goods from Tanzania in the form of loan, taxes was now removed. There was absence of secure market for Tanzanian goods; all these factors had a role to play in causing the economic crisis in the country.
Nationalization of parastatal bodies.
The introduction of the Arusha declaration forced the government to nationalize parastatal bodies. Various enterprises were put under government control which in most cases failed to effectively administer the enterprises hence leading to their collapse.
Misuse of public office.
The misuse of public office was one of the factors that have hindered development in Tanzania. Government officials have misused public funds hence the intended budget does not reach the required sectors of the economy.
STEPS TAKEN BY TANGANYIKA TO SOLVE THE ECONOMIC CRISIS
There were various steps taken by the government since independence to solve the problems of economic crisis, which had a far-reaching impact on the masses. The majority of the population in this country is still living below the international poverty line, which is surviving on less than 1 USA dollar.
The measures to solve the economic crisis were divided into two phases
1961 – 1966. (FIRST PHASE)
Under this phase, the government aimed at improving agriculture, communication and education based on economist model that included equal opportunity for all. These measures included the following;
Socialism and self-reliance
This is where the government took measures to reduce the salaries of government employees from the president down to normal levels. No civil servants, members of parliament or TANU office holders were supposed to engage in private business. This move aimed controlling corruption among politicians.
Targeted rural development.
The government diverted resources from urban areas to rural development. This aimed at improving agriculture sector. The government grouped the population into Ujamaa villages in which the people will work together on communal land so that development can benefit the whole community and not a few individuals.
Administrative and education curriculum.
There were changes in education in order to change from the colonial type to type of education which emphasized socialist ideology. The new values of cooperative basis were encouraged, it was recognized that development plans must be financed by local resources and not to depend on foreign assistance.
Nationalization of land.
The government decided to nationalize land from the colonialists and distribute it to the people for economic development. This was one of the resolutions of the Arusha declaration where it passed that all major means of production should be in the hands of the local people. This is what led to the nationalization of all foreign banks and other private commercial and manufacturing companies.
Removal of head tax. (SECOND PHASE)
The head tax was so unpopular among the majority of people in rural areas; it increased rather than reduce poverty in the villages. The head tax was inherited from colonialism.
1967 – 1980’s
Man power training.
The government took deliberate measures to improve the labour resources through training in and outside the country. A skilled labour force was very crucial to realize economic development in the country.
Development of infrastructure.
The government also took various measures to improve the transport system. A country would be conducive for investment if it has a good transport system. The government in collaboration with Zambia built the TAZARA railway and Kilimanjaro international airport in the 1970s, these measures also aimed at attracting foreign investment which would help to achieve development.
Expansion of agriculture.
The agricultural sector is the main sector of economy thus the government took deliberate measures to improve agriculture. It introduced slogans like “siasa na kilimo” in 1972 to train farmer‟s better methods of farming.
Establishment of parastatal bodies.
The government also established parastatal bodies, such as Tanzania Railway Corporation. National Insurance Corporation and Tanzania electricity supply company (TANESCO) to offer services to the people.
COLONIAL EDUCATION AND EFFECTS IN TANZANIA UP TO 1961.
Colonial education was the kind of education that was provided by the colonial government in African continent; Tanzania being among them during the colonial period. This education was formal where by students were supposed to sit in class to access education with a written curriculum. However the curriculum was prepared in Europe 19thC-20thC.
Basically colonial education was provided by two agencies which were churches through introduction of missionary schools and colonial government its self through the establishment of government schools.
OBJECTIVES OF COLONIAL EDUCATION
- Aimed at providing a staff of Africans with adequate capabilities of managing clerical and minor functions in colonial states; where by those who went to secondary schools were expected to civil servants and those who had primary education were expected to be good farmers with skills in crop cultivation and animal husbandry.
- Colonial education aimed at perpetuating religious values.
- Aimed at perpetuating western civilization/culture.
- It was not designed to prepare young people for service of their own country instead it was motivated by a desire to inculcate the values of their societies.
- Aimed at supervision of colonial economy like agricultural production so as to make Africa a market for European manufactured goods introduced in the colonies.
- It aimed at import of the official ideology of the colonizers like learners were supposed to be obedient, well disciplined and time conscious so as to fulfill the objectives of the colonizers.
- It aimed at deafricanization of African people because learners of the colonial education were supposed to follow western values and abandon African values.
- It aimed at spreading Christianity religion in African colonies. Africans who belonged to other religions such as Islamic religion were supposed to follow Christianity in order to be admitted in seminaries and government schools.
IMPACTS OF COLONIAL EDUCATION
Colonial education produced nationalists who led to African independence example; Kamuzu Banda (Malawi), Jomo Kenyatta (Kenya), Abdul Nassor (Egypt), etc. All those were the products of colonial education.
Introduced skills to students and pupils where learners of colonial education learnt many things and acquired skills for a short time because education provided by the colonialists had a defined curriculum. For example skills like reading and writing which could be used for communication worldwide.
Colonial education acted as a base for manpower preparation where by many Africans went to schools during colonial education had positions in the governments.
Colonial education resulted to killing of African culture (dissociation of Africans who got colonial education), colonial education alienated educated Africans for their own culture. For example educated Africans discouraged and disrespected anything indigenous and instead they praised European culture.
Led to regional imbalance where by regions with economic resources had more schools than those with less resources for example Kigoma region in Tanzania received less priority in education than cash production areas like Mbeya, Kagera, Kilimanjaro, Tanga etc.
Led to discrimination in African continent where by education was provided basing on sex, religion, race and class. For example Colonial education based on race where by Asians, whites and black each had their own separate schools, for example colonial Tanganyika Mkwawa High School currently college of education of University of Dar es salaam saved only the whites. Likewise colonial education led to gender inequality where by colonial schools had few girls compare to boys for example in Tanganyika in 1956 there were only 204 girls in secondary schools out of 4409 students in secondary schools.
Resulted to provision of education basing on colonial environment. The African students were taught lessons about European environment and in negative and a little about Africa for example students in geography class were taught about seasons of climate in Europe which were summer, winter,spring and Autumn while those seasons were very strange to African students who are used only to rainy and dry seasons.
EDUCATION POLICY CHANGES IN TANZANIA (1962 – 1967)
After independence, there were several changes in the education policy. The aim of these changes was to make education the engine of economic development. The changes included the following;
- The government made education a right to all Tanzanians irrespectively of one‟s race or level of income. Colonial education had discriminated the Africans in the provision of education whereby preference was given to Europeans and Asians.
- There was an increase of primary and secondary school enrollment following the government‟s campaign and emphasis on education. Enrollment in colonial education was restricted, the colonialists simply wanted a few Africans who would assist the colonial administrators.
- There were changes regarding the content of colonial education. There was introduction of various disciplines and not only the agricultural sector. This was a crucial step in producing educated people with different skills; this move was taken to support development in the country.
- The government established the university college of Dar es salaam as the state university. The establishment of the university was to acquire highly educated Tanzanians who will play a leading role in developing the country.
THE PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION FOR SELF RELIANCE
The following were noted by Nyerere in the education system by 1967 (weakness in colonial education) i Formal education is basically elitist in nature catering to the needs and interest of a small population who manage to enter formal schooling. In practice the thought of education is training for skills so as to earn high salaries in the modern sector of our economy.
- The education system divorces its participants from the society for which they are supposed to be trained.
- The system breeds the notion that education is synonymous with formal schooling and people are judged and employed on the basis of their ability to pass examinations and acquire paper qualifications.
- The system does not involve its students in productive work such a situation deprives society of their much needed contribution to the increase in national economic output and also breeds among the students contempt for manual work.
In summary, education for self reliance proposed the following changes in the education system in Tanzania. (Views of education for self reliance)
- It should be oriented to rural life. The education system should not divorce people from their society they live in. it should be relevant to the society.
- Teachers and students should all engage in productive activities; the students should participate in the planning and decision making process of organizing these activities.
- Productive work should become an integral part of the school curriculum and provide meaningful learning experience through the integration of theory and practice.
- Examinations should be downgraded. Passing examinations should not be the main goal of the education system, education should prepare its products how to survive i.e. it should be education for life.
- Children should begin school at seven years so that they would be old enough and sufficiently mature to engage in self reliant and productive work when they leave school.
- Primary education must be complete in itself rather than merely serving as a means to higher education after school. People should be in position to creates jobs and be self reliant.
- Students should become self confident and cooperative and develop critical and inquiring minds. The education system had to produce people who can express themselves and are able to work with other.
Achievements of the education for self-reliance in Tanzania
It cannot be denied that Nyerere‟s education for self reliance registered some achievements in Tanzania. Some of the notable achievements are listed here below.
Education was made a right of all Tanzanians.
This was done irrespectively of one‟s race and level of income. There was introduction of free education from primary level to the university thus making it possible for all Tanzanians to have access to education.
Increased literacy rate.
The policy of education for self reliance played a great role in increasing the literacy rate in the country. Tanzania‟s adult literacy rate was among the highest in Africa, it was about 85%. This was due to the deliberate policy of Nyerere to introduce adult education.
Introduction of unity.
Education for self reliance was very instrumental in the introduction of unity in the country. It was characterized by absence of discrimination and the students who were admitted in secondary schools were posted to different areas in the country besides their home areas, this policy promoted unity in the country.
The policy led to regional balance in the country. Colonial education was characterized with regional imbalance where education was mainly offered in production areas thus neglecting other areas which had nothing to offer to the colonialists. Education for self reliance ensured that all regions have access to education.
Use of Swahili.
Education for self reliance was characterized with the introduction of Swahili as the media of instruction. This language is now the national language of the country and it is very instrumental in reducing aspects of tribalism thus ensuring unity.
Diversification of the education curriculum.
There was diversification of content in the education system from being mainly agricultural to different disciplines. This was crucial step in producing educated people with different specialties; this move was taken to support development in the country.
Increased enrollment in both primary and secondary schools.
There was an increase of primary and secondary school enrollment following the government‟s campaign and emphasis on education. Enrollment in colonial education was restricted; the colonialists simply wanted few Africans who would assist the colonial administrators.
It should be pointed out that, the attempt to build a socialist and self reliant society through political, economic, social and educational actions has largely failed. Since 1986 in particular, the united republic of Tanzania was been steadily moving to the right. The country is now much more integrated into the capitalist world system than it was at the time of independence. However one cannot deny the achievements registered by the policy of self reliance.