A family is a group of people who are related by blood, marriage Or adoption. Some of the reasons for getting married or companionship and to get children.


Courtship is a period during which two people get to know one another before they get married. It also appropriate for the preparation for wedding. Courtship enable the two partner to understand each other and to know each families members.

Marriage is the union of a man and a woman as husband and wife. It is a formal and legal between a man and women, accompanied a wedding ceremony


Courtship is importance period before marriage because it helps a couple to: –

  1. Develop self- discipline

Without self discipline an individual may be disqualified by the family of the potential husband or wife.

  1. Know each other

It gives the two partners an opportunity to know each others feelings, altitudes, expectation and other aspect of life before marriage. This helps to avoid unnecessary conflicts in the future.

  1. Prepare for marriage

Marriage requires a lot of things to be done in advance, involves the couples relatives neighbors and friends.

  1. Show evidence of maturity

People who intend to get marriage must be mature enough to take care of the family they are due to start.

  1. Acquire property

Courtship gives a couple times to acquire some basic requirement of life such as a house and furniture.


Courtship and marriage are closely related. This relation can be seen in the areas.

  1. Courtship is the foundation of a good marriage
  2. The courtship period allows the couple to learn important life skill. For example one learner how to love and understand his other partners.
  3. The two partners decide to get marriage.
  4. A good marriage needs a blessing or parents, relative and neighbors.


Is the marriage done under 18 years old. The legal age for marriage in Tanzania is less than that 15-18 years and above  considered to be early or premature marriage


Customs are habits that are passed  from one generation to another. They include greetings, punctuality and obedience.

Belief are things that are thought to be true by a certain community, different society have their customs and belief about marriage.

The following are some customs and belief that may encourage early marriage.

  1. Payment of bride price

The parents of a girl receive bride price in terms of cash, livestock or land; this can encourage early marriage because greedy parents may be tempted to forced the young daughters to be married in order to get wealth

  1. Gender discrimination in education

Is where a boy is given priority over a girl in terms of education; some parents have the wrong belief that educating a girl is west of time and money. This encourages early marriage because girls are forced to drop out of school in favor of their brother’s.

  1. Traditional initiations

Traditional practices such as initiation prepare a girl for marriage. This is encourage early marriage because a girls  is considered woman who is ready to start her own family.

  1. Inheritance

Some communities do not allow a boy to inherit property If is not married. This encourages some boys to enter into marriages as a qualification to inherity property.

  1. Lack of education

Some parents marry off their young daughters due to ignorance


  1. Complication during delivery

Early marriage causes maternal and infant death in the society this is because reproductive organs of the young girl are enough to support   matured to a pregnancy deliver safe. The complication arising during pregnancy and labour most often result in death or permanent damage to the girl’s body.

  1. Prevention of young women from continuing

some communities, young girls are forcefully removed from school to be married off.This interfere with their education and future plains

  1. Increase in poverty

Most couples that get married at a young age do not have reliable means of getting income it becomes difficult for them to take care of their children.

  1. Spread of HIV and AIDS

Very young men and women may not be able to make correct decision on mental matters. They are at a high risk of being infected with sexually transmitted disease include HIV and AIDS.

  1. Break down of families

Very young men and women may lack enough experience, knowledge and tolerance as far as family problems are concerned. They may not know how to settle their difference and sometimes minor problems lead to separation and divorce.


  1. Education

The society should be educated on the dangers of early marriage.

  1. Basic sociocultural practices

Cultural practices- societies should  abandon on negative social cultural practices such as female circumcision and gender discrimination.

  1. Laws

The government should enact strict laws against early marriages and enforce the existing one to discourage parents from forcing their children to get married at early  age.

  1. Poverty alleviation

Poverty alleviation strategies should be strengthened.This will help preventing the economic hardship which force poor parents to marry off their young girl in order to get bride price  .


A stable marriage exists where the couple is united under the rules of marriage. A couple supports love and respect each other.

  1. Agreement– the two should also agree on what they expect to achieve in the marriage.
  2. Love– marriage partners must have affection for each other. Love is an important component of a stable marriage.
  3. Trust– the couple must trust each other.
  4. Tolerance and understanding– each partner should exercise to tolerance towards, the weakness of the other. It may not always be possible for one to fully agree with the action of the other person
  5. Transparency– marriage partner should be open with each other. It is wrong to keep secrets which may danger the marriage.


There are three common types of families these are: –

  1. Nuclear family

This is family which consists of a father, mother and children.

  1. Extended family

This is family which consists of a father, mother, children, grandparents, aunts, uncles, nieces, nephews, cousin and other relatives.

  1. Single-parent family

Single parent families may result from the death of one partner, divorce or getting children.


A family plays an important role in the community. The reasons why the family is important include: –

  1. To foster co-operation in the society
  2. The bring up children who will be honest, trust worthy and responsible people in the society.
  3. Families promote the development of individual members.
  4. Good families act as role models in the society children and youth therefore have role models they can copy.
  5. Families provide the children with opportunities to be hard workers
  6. Children are taught customs of their society.


A stable family is a one in which peace, respect love and good behavior are observed

The following factors contribute to family stability


This is situation in which members. The children respect their parents and people other.

  1. LOVE

This enable family member to help each other


A family should live in peace and avoid conflicts


The following are some of the way in which family stability in important

  1. Family members participate in other social and economic activities
  2. Family members are able to participate in communal activities such as cleaning up market and planting trees.
  3. Peace in country begging at the lowest level of the family
  4. Family stability helps members to enjoy in positive habits and activities and reduces incidences of drug abuse or crime.
  5. Children from stable families are likely  to start their own families in future thereby ensuring the continuity of the family as unit.


Right are the things one is allowed to do or that one is entitled to. In the family as a unity parent have their right and children also have their right some of the right that parents have are: –

  1. Making family decision
  2. Guiding and advising their children
  3. Being respected by their children
  4. Teaching their children community values.

Children in the family also have family. This right include: –

  1. Expressing their opinion
  2. Being treated equally without any kind of discrimination
  3. Being registered after birth and being given name
  4. Living with their parents
  5. Rest and leisure
  6. Getting basic and secondary need like food, education and healthcare
  7. To be protected from injury abuse economic exploitation


These are duties that a person is obliged some parental responsibilities are: –

  1. Making family decision
  2. Providing security for the family
  3. Ensuring discipline is maintained by the children
  4. Providing family requirement such as a food, cloth, shelter and education.
  5. Taking charge of the day to day activities of the family
  6. Loving and taking care of the children
  7. Arranging and organizing family activities such as cleanliness and preparation of meal.
  8. Counseling their children to be well behaved

Responsibilities of children in the family include 

  1. Helping with domestic tasks
  2. Respecting parents and elders
  3. Taking care of their young brother or sister
  4. Obeying their parents and teachers
  5. Going to school to learn.

Consequence of not carrying out responsibilities

  1. Family instability:

Children can acquire bad habits and create trouble in the family and in the society.

  1. Conflicts:

Frequent misunderstandings may arise between members of the family.

  1. Family breakdown:

A family may break down if there are frequent misunderstanding and quarrels.

  1. Street children:

In the absence of peace and provision of family requirements children will not stay at home. They will end in the street.

  1. Lack of basic need:

If parent do not work hard, children cannot get their basic need as well as other needs


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