Home COMMERCE TOPIC 4: MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATION | COMMERCE FORM 4

TOPIC 4: MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATION | COMMERCE FORM 4

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The Meaning and Importance of Management

Explain the meaning and importance of management

Management

– act of allocating resources to accomplish desired goals and
objectives efficiently and effectively. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal.or is the organization and coordination of the activities of a business in order to achieve defined objectives. Or isThe activities associated with running a company, such as controlling, leading, monitoring, organizing, and planning.
Principles of Management
Management principles are guidelines for the decisions and actions of managers.
  1. Division of Work
    – According to this principle the whole work is divided into small
    tasks.The specialization of the workforce according to the skills of a
    person , creating specific personal and professional development within
    the labour force and therefore increasing productivity; leads to
    specialization which increases the efficiency of labour.
  2. Authority and Responsibility
    – This is the issue of commands followed by responsibility for their
    consequences. Authority means the right of a superior to give enhance
    order to his subordinates; responsibility means obligation for
    performance.
  3. Discipline – It is obedience,
    proper conduct in relation to others, respect of authority, etc. It is
    essential for the smooth functioning of all organizations.
  4. Unity of Command
    – This principle states that each subordinate should receive orders and
    be accountable to one and only one superior. If an employee receives
    orders from more than one superior, it is likely to create confusion and
    conflict.
  5. Unity of Direction – All related
    activities should be put under one group, there should be one plan of
    action for them, and they should be under the control of one manager.
  6. Subordination of Individual Interest to Mutual Interest
    – The management must put aside personal considerations and put company
    objectives firstly. Therefore the interests of goals of the
    organization must prevail over the personal interests of individuals.
  7. Remuneration
    – Workers must be paid sufficiently as this is a chief motivation of
    employees and therefore greatly influences productivity. The quantum and
    methods of remuneration payable should be fair, reasonable and
    rewarding of effort.
  8. The Degree of Centralization
    – The amount of power wielded with the central management depends on
    company size. Centralization implies the concentration of decision
    making authority at the top management.
  9. Line of Authority/Scalar Chain
    – This refers to the chain of superiors ranging from top management to
    the lowest rank. The principle suggests that there should be a clear
    line of authority from top to bottom linking all managers at all levels.
  10. Order
    – Social order ensures the fluid operation of a company through
    authoritative procedure. Material order ensures safety and efficiency in
    the workplace. Order should be acceptable and under the rules of the
    company.
  11. Equity – Employees must be treated
    kindly, and justice must be enacted to ensure a just workplace. Managers
    should be fair and impartial when dealing with employees, giving equal
    attention towards all employees.
  12. Stability of Tenure of Personnel
    – Stability of tenure of personnel is a principle stating that in order
    for an organization to run smoothly, personnel (especially managerial
    personnel) must not frequently enter and exit the organization.
  13. Initiative
    – Using the initiative of employees can add strength and new ideas to
    an organization. Initiative on the part of employees is a source of
    strength for organization because it provides new and better ideas.
    Employees are likely to take greater interest in the functioning of the
    organization.
Esprit de Corps
– This refers to the need of managers to ensure and develop morale in
the workplace; individually and communally. Team spirit helps develop an
atmosphere of mutual trust and understanding. Team spirit helps to
finish the task on time.
LEVELS OF MANAGEMENT.
The term “Levels of Management
refers to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in
an organization. The number of levels in management increases when the
size of the business and work force increases and vice versa. The level
of management determines a chain of command, the amount of authority
& status enjoyed by any managerial position. The levels of
management can be classified in three broad categories:
  1. Top level / Administrative level
  2. Middle level / Executory
  3. Low level / Supervisory / Operative / First-line managers
Managers at all these levels perform different functions. The role of managers at all the three levels is discussed below:
Top Level of Management
It
consists of board of directors, chief executive or managing director.
The top management is the ultimate source of authority and it manages
goals and policies for an enterprise. It devotes more time on planning
and coordinating functions.
The role of the top management can be summarized as follows –
  1. Top management lays down the objectives and broad policies of the enterprise.
  2. It issues necessary instructions for preparation of department budgets, procedures, schedules etc.
  3. It prepares strategic plans & policies for the enterprise.
  4. It appoints the executive for middle level i.e. departmental managers.
  5. It controls & coordinates the activities of all the departments.
  6. It is also responsible for maintaining a contact with the outside world.
  7. It provides guidance and direction.
  8. The top management is also responsible towards the shareholders for the performance of the enterprise.
<!– [if !supportLists]–>1. <!–[endif]–>Middle Level of Management
The
branch managers and departmental managers constitute middle level. They
are responsible to the top management for the functioning of their
department. They devote more time to organizational and directional
functions. In small organization, there is only one layer of middle
level of management but in big enterprises, there may be senior and
junior middle level management. Their role can be emphasized as –
  1. They execute the plans of the organization in accordance with the policies and directives of the top management.
  2. They make plans for the subunits of the organization.
  3. They participate in employment & training of lower level management.
  4. They interpret and explain policies from top level management to lower level.
  5. They are responsible for coordinating the activities within the division or department.
  6. It also sends important reports and other important data to top level management.
  7. They evaluate performance of junior managers.
  8. They are also responsible for inspiring lower level managers towards better performance.
Management
Lower
level is also known as supervisory / operative level of management. It
consists of supervisors, foreman, section officers, superintendent etc.
According to R.C. Davis, “Supervisory management refers to
those executives whose work has to be largely with personal oversight
and direction of operative employees”. In other words, they are
concerned with direction and controlling function of management.

Their activities include –

  1. Assigning of jobs and tasks to various workers.
  2. They guide and instruct workers for day to day activities.
  3. They are responsible for the quality as well as quantity of production.
  4. They are also entrusted with the responsibility of maintaining good relation in the organization.
  5. They communicate workers problems, suggestions, and recommendatory
    appeals etc to the higher level and higher level goals and objectives to
    the workers.
  6. They help to solve the grievances of the workers.
  7. They supervise & guide the subordinates.
  8. They are responsible for providing training to the workers.
  9. They arrange necessary materials, machines, tools etc for getting the things done.
  10. They prepare periodical reports about the performance of the workers.
  11. They ensure discipline in the enterprise.
  12. They motivate workers.
  13. They are the image builders of the enterprise because they are in direct contact with the workers.
IMPORTANCE OF MANAGEMENT IN BUSINESS ORGANISATION
  • It helps in Achieving Group Goals –
    It arranges the factors of production, assembles and organizes the
    resources, integrates the resources in effective manner to achieve
    goals. It directs group efforts towards achievement of predetermined
    goals. By defining objective of organization clearly there would be no
    wastage of time, money and effort. Management converts disorganized
    resources of men, machines, money etc. into useful enterprise. These
    resources are coordinated, directed and controlled in such a manner that
    enterprise work towards attainment of goals.
  • Optimum Utilization of Resources –
    Management utilizes all the physical & human resources
    productively. This leads to efficacy in management. Management provides
    maximum utilization of scarce resources by selecting its best possible
    alternate use in industry from out of various uses. It makes use of
    experts, professional and these services leads to use of their skills,
    knowledge, and proper utilization and avoids wastage. If employees and
    machines are producing its maximum there is no under employment of any
    resources.
  • Reduces Costs – It gets maximum
    results through minimum input by proper planning and by using minimum
    input & getting maximum output. Management uses physical, human and
    financial resources in such a manner which results in best combination.
    This helps in cost reduction.
  • Establishes Sound Organization –
    No overlapping of efforts (smooth and coordinated functions). To
    establish sound organizational structure is one of the objective of
    management which is in tune with objective of organization and for
    fulfillment of this, it establishes effective authority &
    responsibility relationship i.e. who is accountable to whom, who can
    give instructions to whom, who are superiors & who are subordinates.
    Management fills up various positions with right persons, having right
    skills, training and qualification. All jobs should be cleared to
    everyone.
  • Establishes Equilibrium – It enables
    the organization to survive in changing environment. It keeps in touch
    with the changing environment. With the change is external environment,
    the initial co-ordination of organization must be changed. So it adapts
    organization to changing demand of market / changing needs of societies.
    It is responsible for growth and survival of organization.
  • Essentials for Prosperity of Society –
    Efficient management leads to better economical production which helps
    in turn to increase the welfare of people. Good management makes a
    difficult task easier by avoiding wastage of scarce resource. It
    improves standard of living. It increases the profit which is beneficial
    to business and society will get maximum output at minimum cost by
    creating employment opportunities which generate income in hands.
    Organization comes with new products and researches beneficial for
    society.
Disadvantages of management.
  • Time consuming in making decision
  • high cost of operation i.employees salaries
  • conflict among employees
Historical Evolution of Management
Discuss the historical evolution of management
Meaning of Planning; Organization; Staffing; Direction; Control and Coordination
Explain the following functions of management: Planning; Organization; Staffing; Direction; Control and Coordination
FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT
Planning
  • The
    planning function of management controls all the planning that allows
    the organization to run smoothly. Planning involves defining a goal and
    determining the most effective course of action needed to reach that
    goal. Typically, planning involves flexibility, as the planner must
    coordinate with all levels of management and leadership in the
    organization. Planning also involves knowledge of the company’s
    resources and the future objectives of the business.
Organizing
  • The
    organizing function of leadership controls the overall structure of the
    company. The organizational structure is the foundation of a company;
    without this structure, the day-to-day operation of the business becomes
    difficult and unsuccessful. Organizing involves designating tasks and
    responsibilities to employees with the specific skill sets needed to
    complete the tasks. Organizing also involves developing the
    organizational structure and chain of command within the company.
Coordinating
  • The
    coordinating function of leadership controls all the organizing,
    planning and staffing activities of the company and ensures all
    activities function together for the good of the organization.
    Coordinating typically takes place in meetings and other planning
    sessions with the department heads of the company to ensure all
    departments are on the same page in terms of objectives and goals.
    Coordinating involves communication, supervision and direction by
    management.
Staffing
  • The
    staffing function of management controls all recruitment and personnel
    needs of the organization. The main purpose of staffing is to hire the
    right people for the right jobs to achieve the objectives of the
    organization. Staffing involves more than just recruitment; staffing
    also encompasses training and development, performance appraisals,
    promotions and transfers. Without the staffing function, the business
    would fail because the business would not be properly staffed to meet
    its goals.
Controlling
  • The
    controlling function of management is useful for ensuring all other
    functions of the organization are in place and are operating
    successfully. Controlling involves establishing performance standards
    and monitoring the output of employees to ensure each employee’s
    performance meets those standards. The controlling process often leads
    to the identification of situations and problems that need to be
    addressed by creating new performance standards. The level of
    performance affects the success of all aspects of the organization.

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