TOPIC 14: FINANCIAL INSTITUTION ~ ECONOMICS FORM 6
These are institution which stands between surplus spending unit and deficit spending units.
These are institution which acts as a goal between transferring funds from those who have surplus to those who are spending.
THEY PLAY THE FOLLOWING ROLES
They transfer funds from those with surplus to those who are in need
They facilitate the pooling of risks.
They provide the public with more liquid and less risks on assets
They help to increase efficiency by applying special technology and other assistance in investment
They increase the liquidity of financial institution by giving loans.
FINANCIAL INTERMEDIARIES ARE CATEGORIZED INTO TWO
These are financial institution which provide short term loan, accept and maintain deposit, undertake less risk investment, create credit and their aimed at making profit.
Non banking financial institution (NBFIs)
These are institutions that carry out financial activities by their resources and are not directly from the savers as debt instead they mobilize the public saving for providing financial services.
Are institutions that provide banking services without meeting definition of bank for example development bank, life insurance Company, PPF, NSSF, Building society, post offices, saving banks etc.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN BANKS AND NON BANKS.
Banks can be categorized into
Is a profit making financial institution, it obtains its profit from charging high interest on loan, charging a commission on service rendered and investing in short term and medium investment.
FUNCTION OF COMMERCIAL BANK
Accepting and keeping deposits
Maintaining different accounts, these are saving current and fixed deposit a/c
They keep valuable articles and documents in self custody
They give loans and overdraft to customers.
They exchange currency
They facilitate quick and payment through cheque, standing orders
Banks manager deceased customer property and distribute it according to the will
They give advice to customers on investment
They assist the government in receiving money from tax payer
They create credit
They help central bank to implement monetary policy
They acts as referees to credit worth customers
NATIONAL BANK OF COMMERCE (NBC)
It was established in 1967 after the Arusha Declaration following the nationalization of private foreign bank. NB was aimed at solving the following problems:
The problem of low finance to domestic sector
There was too much domestic credit to foreigners
There was low savings mobilization to citizens
There was high level of dependency on foreign managerial skills
There was lack of support to the government during deficit budget
FUNCTIONS OF NBC BY THEN.
To provide loans to investors
To mobilize savings
To transfer funds/money from one area to another
To provide technical advice to the investors
Custodian of valuable commodities
It provides other commercial bank services.
After privatization in 1997 NBC was divided into two
National bank of commerce limited ( NBC 1997 ltd)
National micro finance bank (NMB)
NBC was to provide services to big businessmen while NMB was to provide services to low income earners and small businessmen
COOPERATIVE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT BANK (CRDB)
It was established in 1947 for provision of local development loan fund which was to assist food production and for African productivity loan fund in assisting European farmers.
FUNCTIONS OF CRDB OF 1947.
To promote rural development
To monitor projects
To easy the purchase of crops in the rural areas
To provide technical advice to farmers
To provide loans to cooperative unions.
2) SPECIALIZED BANKS
Are banks that deal with specific function or specific sectors.
i) T.I.B – Tanzania Investment Bank, the bank was established in 1971 to bring all means of production to the public. It other functions were as follows;
a) To finance large scale agriculture
b) To provide advice on industrial development
ii) T.H.B – Tanzania Housing Bank: The bank was established 1973 in order to receive deposit and provide account services to provide all banking services and provide credit for residential and commercial premises.
This is a process through which commercial banks use cheque to expand the volume of money lent.
NB: The expanded credit is only in the form of book entry.
Assuming the cash ratio/ reserve ratio is 20% and initial deposit is 1000. When people get loan they deposit cheque in their a/c in the same bank. If there are 4 people who are able and willing to borrow money the credit creation process will be follows.
Total credit is equal
The number of times the money increase is called the credit multiplier
LIMITATION OF CREDIT CREATION
PROBLEM FACING COMMERCIAL BANKS.
3. CENTRAL BANK.
Is a financial institution which controls all other financial institution and implements monetary policies. The central bank of Tanzania (BOT) was established 1965 replacing the existing East Africa currency board. The Bank of Tanzania BOT started issuing currency in 1966.
FUNCTIONS OF B.O.T
1. Banking function, the BOT does the following
2. Development function the central bank stabilize the economic by
3. Domestic monetary management functions
-BOT acts as adviser on all financial institutions
-It is responsible for financing the government in case of deficit budget
-It manages all government debts
4. External monetary management function
Difference between central bank and commercial bank
Qn. 1. Discuss the objectives of monetary policy
2. What are the problems of implementing monetary policy in LDC’S.
NONE BANKS FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS.
Non banking institutions perform the following roles
NATIONAL INSURANCE COMPANY (N.I.C)
It was established in 1967 after Arusha declaration which speculates nationalization policies.
The main objectives of NIC where
Qn. Discuss the roles of PPF?
Privatization of financial institutions.