TOPIC 1: INTERACTION AMONG THE PEOPLE OF AFRICA | HISTORY FORM 2
Interaction was the way in which people from a given community came into contact with another community. Or interaction was a state in which people from one community got into contact with one another.
The contacts among African people resulted from their various struggles to meet their daily requirements and further social and economic development. Before colonialism, African communities had social and economic interactions.
It is the interaction among the people in the societies due to social factors. Social interaction took place through migration, religion, war, music, medicine and marriage.
East Africa belongs to four main language groups namely the Khoisan, the Cushites, the Nilotes and the Bantu. Historical evidences show that the earliest inhabitants of East Africa were of Khoisan origin. Their speech is described as had “click” sound. It was similar to the language of present day KhoiKhoi and San of South Africa.
They were nomadic hunters and gathers. These early large groups interacted with the larger Cushites, Bantu and the Nilotes communities that began settling in East Africa from the first century A.D.
The remnants of them include Sandawe and Hadzabe of Tanzania and the Okiek (Dorobo) of Kenya. The origin home kind of the Nilotes was in the Nile valley in Sudan. Some Bantu communities of East Africa included Nyamwezi, Sukuma, Chagga and Pare of Tanzania, kikuyu, Kamba.
Luhya of Kenya and Baganda, Basoga and Banyoro of Uganda. Through interaction of one community practiced medicine interacted with another led to some changes such as introduction of iron technology in East Africa.
Religion played a crucial role in all African societies. Religious beliefs were taken seriously and affected every phase of life. There was a variety of religious activities in pre-colonial Africa.
These included burial rites purifications, rituals naming of ceremonies and prayers to bless soldiers before they went to war. Religious activities took place at different levels such as family level, clan level and community level e.g. The Bushmen of Congo held prayers before going to hunt as they believed that God was the source of all food.
Among the Asante people of West Africa the king of Asante (Asantehene) based his right to office on the possession of the Royal or Golden stool, Asantehene was regarded as the chief priest.
Natural cults also existed in many parts of Africa. Their main aim was to please the spirits and legendary heroes e.g. the juju practiced in Western Africa the Shona held a cult called Mwani. The king of Shona (Mwanamtapa) was regarded as decline.
3. WARS (Internal conflicts)
African communities engaged in war from time to time; they fought with various reasons such as to increase the number of the herds of livestock, to get fertile land for agriculture purposes and expansion of the kingdom e.g. Buganda conquered Buddu, Karagwe and Busoga to expand their kingdom by 1839.
Egyptian army had established their base at Gondokora the area located around Southern Khartoum and by 1869, Egyptian had raided and destroyed the Lango and Ancholi religion in the modern day Uganda.
4. MUSIC AND DANCES
African music and dances brought people together; communities’ rites and ceremonies were accompanied by songs and dances. Every African society developed songs for work, Labourers sang while clearing fields, sowing and harvesting goods example of dances were Mdundiko among the Zaramo and Sindimba of Makonde. The Yomba of West Africa performed Orik music where by other songs praised or condemned certain characteristics including leadership and relation with neighbours.
Dance were also performed for different purposes; some dance were open to everyone while others restricted to a certain secret society professional and artisans example Chagga men and women performed a dance called Rring during wedding ceremonies and Luguru led their dance called Gubi.
African’s had medicine men and women who played important role both spiritually and medically. Those who practice medicine interacted with many members of the society as patient visited some of the well-known medicine men and women.
Some medicine men and women were also political advisors and leaders example Kinjekitile Ngwale of Southern Tanzania most of the medicine were extracted from plant roots, barks and leaves e.g. The (neem tree) Mwarobaini is mostly used by various medicine in Matebele.
Marriage occupies a position of great importance in African communities. Every member of the society jugs to build their own family. In Buganda the Kabaka married from different clans in order to enhance political unity in the kingdom. Therefore social interactions strengthened through marriage. At the same time marriage led to emergence of new culture examples Swahili culture as the result of mixture of Bantu and Arab culture.
Africa communities also interacted due to economic factors such as crafts, trade, farming and pastoralism.
1. METAL WORKING
African communities used various kinds of metal to make tools, weapons, utensil and ornaments; some of the widely used metals were iron, Bronze, Gold, Copper and tin. Archaeologists have discovered the remains of early in working beneath important religious shrine in the Great lakes religion dating back over 2,000 years ago.
Egyptians were the first people known to have used copper; Benin the Bronze casters had guild called Igun Eronwon through making various metal tools people interacted due to the need of the commodities through interactions.
Many Africans communities practiced agriculture and different types of interaction took place in the process. Apart from few communities such as the pastoral Maasai who never tilled land; other communities cultivated a variety of crops by using different farming methods, tools and crops were passed from one community to another. The Kwari who were purely pastoral community eventually became cultivators as the results they interacted with agricultural societies.
Was an economic activity that was practiced by communities that lived near water bodies such as lakes, rivers and the seas. The Luo were and still are named fishermen in Pre-colonial East Africa the Ndengereko’s fished in the river Rufiji while the Zaramo and other coastal people in the Indian Ocean, such fishing communities interacted with pastoral and agriculturalist so as to acquire animal product and agricultural commodities.
Trade conducted in pre–colonial period was in barter system, the trade network was based on the need to access what a community didn’t produce; Example pastoralists exchanged their animals’ products for vegetable and grains. The limbo clans among the Luo specialized in occupation such as iron working and pottery. In the 8th – 16th C AD Communities from the Sudanic belt engaged in trade with the communities from North Africa in the Trans – Sahara trade. Among the most important commodities of exchange were iron, gold, slaves and salts.
5. THE NEED TO SEARCH NEW AREAS
Areas with fertile land and reliable rainfall were very attractive to the people within the regions or those coming from outside the regions. Agricultural societies kept on shifting from the area with infertile soil to areas with fertile soil; examples in the interlacustrine regions were densely populated compared to areas like Central Tanzania and Northern part of Kenya where population was low.
IMPACTS /RESULTS /EFFECTS/CONSEQUENCES/ OUTCOMES OF THE INTERACTIONS
SOCIAL IMPACTS OF INTERACTIONS AMONG THE PEOPLE OF AFRICA
Loss of originality
in the process of migrations and trade interactions people moved from one place of their origin to various destinations, through this interactions probably there was interactions of new values, customs and beliefs.
Emergence of new language
As people of different languages like Bantu, Nilotes and Khoisan meet with other groups; they developed new languages which were based on those new related groups of Swahili language developed in East Africa having most of the Bantu vocabularies.
When people moved from their original areas and established settlement in new areas they got married with the natures and established new social relations. These involved social conflicts since people were united together.
The places which were attractive for people’s settlements become highly populated. Those regions immigration was common than emigration.
THE IMPACTS OF ECONOMIC INTERACTIONS
Growth of towns and cities
Trading activities stimulated the emergence of urban centers along the trade natures and centers. Areas that produced trade commodities in West, North and East Africa become remarkable urban center; example Taghaza, Timbuktu, Gao, Kumbisaleh in West Africa, Alex and Rial in Tripoli and Cairo in north Africa, Malindi, Mombasa. Bagamoyo, Zanzibar, Tabora and Ujiji in East Africa.
Exposure of Africa to the external world
The African coast and interior areas were invalided to the outside world. People were engaged in trading activities and slowly they created trading contacts with the Europeans. African was producing goods that were observed by the outside world.
Intensification of agricultural production
Due to good manufacturing and use of better tools and high demands of food stuffs; cash crops and animals products became very important among Africans.
Development of technical skills and new ideas
Trading activities stimulated the emergency and growth of technical skills. Africans were able to process gold, iron smelting and cloth making.
Over exploitation of African resources
Trade items such as ivory, gold, copper and animals skins, supplied within African and later to outside world. Later on those resources were highly demanded by the outside world like Asia and Europe. Therefore traders take them to outside world of large quantities.
The decrease of manpower
Many people in the Western Sudan and East Africa interior were captured as slaves to meet the high demands of slaves by long distance and Trans-Saharan trade.
Emergence of classes
The interactions of people on Africa resulted into classes of rich and poor; those who engaged in trade and agricultural activities became economically powerful than those who did not engage in these activities.
THE COMING OF THE NGONI
Ngoni people originated in Kwazulu land and Natal region in the sent by the public of South Africa. Ngoni are the one who speak Nguni language in the 19th century; Zulu kingdom got new king called Tshaka. Tshaka through frequent war campaigns succeeded to expand his empire. The tribe defeated by Tshaka was recruited into his military service.
Through this contradiction many other tribes fled northward to Mozambique, Tanzania, Malawi and Zambia. Due to contradictions and political ambition Tshaka was assassinated by his brother Dingane in 1828.
Basically, the Ngoni speaking people were predominantly agriculturalist and pastoralists. They were the last largest Bantu group to migrate into Central and East Africa in 1830s. Nguni migration came under several groups, the major and well known were two groups namely:-
The first group was led by Zwangendaba, these people fled in 1823 and 1824; and they crossed river Zambezi in 1835 and reached Ufipa. After the death of Zwangendaba in 1845, the group was divided into smaller groups such as – Tuta group under Mpangalala who migrated northward to Uholoholo, Ukimbu, Unyamwezi and – Zulu Mbonani led another group who moved to Unyakyusa, Usafwa, Ubena and settled at Upangwa where he met Mputa Maseko. They fought and some group moved back across river Ruvuma and another moved to Morogoro where they were known as Mbunga.
The second group was led by Mputa Maseko; they moved to eastern side of Lake Nyasa and settled at Mgongoma now days Songea where they intermarried with local people especially the Yao.
CAUSES OF THE NGONI MIGRATIONS
The Mfecane war.
This was the period of political instability and upheavals in South Africa which led to the creation of political alliances among the displaced communities. It covered the period 1820 – 1834 which referred as war of crushing the people.
This was the war of wondering or crushing among the Bantu people in South Africa in early 19thC. It was set in motion by Shaka (born in 1787 died in 1828), who ruled in Zulu Kingdom.
In addition to these major groups, which clashed with one another at various times on their wanderings, setting off ripple effects in all directions, the Afrikaners, or Boers, were on their Great Trek during the same period. By 1840, the Mfecane was for the most part over.
CAUSES OF THE MFECANE
Land shortage, the increasing number of people as a result of Dutch and British settlers, Indians, and in South Africa led to clear shortage of land.
Competition for trade at Delagoa Bay.
Rise of Shaka Zulu (1787 – 1828), a powerful military leader
Boer expansion into the interior
IMPACTS OF THE MFECANE
Loss of life, thousands of people died during the war
Emergence of new kingdoms, including Zulu, Swazi, Swana and Sotho Kingdoms
Loss of properties, famine and hunger
Spread of Nguni culture in most parties of South, Central and East Africa.
Boers occupied more land
Collapse of weaker states like Rozwi kingdom
The Nguni (Ngoni) migration into East Africa (Nguni Migration)
Since the Ngoni’s economy depend much on land they wanted to expand southwards but due to presence of Boers it become difficult to them as they could not extend to west because Kens rub mountain or to East because of Indian Ocean hence they involved north wards.
The Ngoni migrated due to the tyrannical and dictatorial rule of Shaka: The Zulu ruler was cruel in nature as he severely tortured people and those who failed to respond to his order were killed. Due to this some people decided to seek refuge by migrating to other areas.
Thiswas caused by the fertility of soils and the reliability of rainfall between Drakensberg Mountains and the Indian Ocean.
Some Ngoni people owned large herds of cattle and northwards looking for pasture and water for their animals. So they wanted to look for more fertile land for their cattle. They also experienced famine and drought that led to lack of food and water.
The influence of their leaders: Men like Zwangendaba, Maputo and Zulugama provided good leadership. This encouraged them to move onwards.
It could also have been due to overstocking of their animals as they were having spirit of cattle rustling, i.e. they had great desire to steal other people’s cattle. For example they went on driving away and confiscating other people’s cattle during their conquest and expansionist wars.
Increased knowledge of military tactics by the age regiments
These were powerful military forces and dedicated to professional war, which was their livelihood. They believed that they could have other territories through migration.
EFFECTS OF NGONI INVASION OR MIGRATION IN EAST AFRICA
The Ngoni invasion led to the rise on outstanding leaders to prominence. These included Mirambo, Nyungu ya Mawe and Mkwawa, who used the Ngoni military tactics to build their states.
Unification of small states; Many small Ntemi chiefdoms came together (united) and formed large political units under strong leaders to fight the Ngoni for example Sangu and Hehe (re-organisation)
There was formation of new societies/tribe like the Mbunga.
There was spread of Ngoni customs and culture for example initiation ceremonies where girls were taught sex educations and circumcision.
It led to formation of a large Ngoni society in East Africa as they absorbed many people.
It led to the formation of some societies by those who used Ngoni tactics for example Nyamwezi under Mirambo.
It led to the introduction of new weapons e.g. Assegai, cowhides and shields.
From the Ngoni invasion people learned how to become organised from smaller disorganised society to well organised bigger political systems. These were to be under the control and leadership of organised, strong and efficient rulers such as the Sangu chief, Hehe etc.
There were intermarriages between Ngoni and Nyamwezi which subsequently led to improved relationships between the invaders and indigenous people and an increased population.
They caused the loss of lives leading to depopulation in some areas where they got warriors this was especially in southern Tanzania. This was due to the killing of people in the expansionist wars e.g. the Mariti remnants of Rugarugas killed so many people.
They introduced military organisation and tactics to such an extent that the Ngoni lost their superiority. E.g. Holoholo were able to defeat the Tuta Ngoni when they’re attacked them.
Their movement led to wider spread of devastation, depopulation and displacement of people.
They destroyed the economy of the people of southern Tanzania when they grabbed their cattle (the Ngoni were cattle plunderers). The Ngoni invasion led to poverty, i.e. it led to the creation of the class of poor people as their property continued to be destroyed and persistently looted during the wars
The Ngoni led to emergence of refugees who lived by plundering and killing i.e. the Mariti and Rugaruga who were later used by ambitious men like Mirambo and Nyungu ya Mawe to form their empires.
The Tuta Ngoni on their movement northwards, disrupted the trade particularly between Tabora and Ujiji.
There was loss of peoples’ language, culture and customs (detribalization of people) i.e. the raids caused many people to become homeless and tribe less. This led to people losing their identity. In addition, such groups became terrorists who lived by war, plunder and hunting for ivory. They included the “Rugaruga” who began hiring their services as mercenaries to any chief willing to pay them.
Ngoni disturbances disrupted normal cultivation leading to famine. There was widespread famine due to the scotched-earth policy of fighting circumstances, crop could neither be planted nor harvested, and people were forced to abandon farming.
They led to insecurity since the new weapons and military tactics increased warfare and aggression in East Africa.
The Ngoni intensified slave trade in East Africa, this was because they displaced people from their homes and so making it easy for slave raiders to catch and sell them.
It led to increased warfare among the African societies, including those areas that had been peaceful before.
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TOPIC 2: SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTION IN PRE-COLONIAL AFRICA | HISTORY FORM 2