COASTAL PEOPLE’S RESISTANCE (1888 – 1889)
It was a resistance waged by the Coastal people in Tanganyika against the Germans. The coastal people were led by Abushiri and Bwana Hery, it was the earliest resistance in Tanganyika.
Abushiri bin Salim had his headquarters at Pangani. The trouble started on August 8th 1888 when the Germans arrived to establish themselves along the Coast. The Coastal people under Abushiri rioted and refused/ protested the existence of the German flag in their area.
The war later on spread to Bagamoyo, Tanga, Mikindani and Kilwa and it also reached Pangani. Bwana Heri, the ruler of the Zigua joined his force together in that war. The Germans sent Von Weismann to suppress the resistance.
The Germans recruited mercenaries to assist them in suppressing the resistance. These involved the Zulu, Turkish, Nubians and Somalis.
Von Weismann captured Pangani and other Coastal towns in 1889. Abushiri was defeated and escaped , but he was captured by the Germans after being betrayed by JumbeMagaya of Usagara. He was hanged at Bagamoyo on December 15th 1889.
Also the people of Kilwa organized the resistance in 1894. They were led by Hassan bin Makunganya who led the people of Kilwa to fight against the Germans.
The resistance did not last longer as Makunganya was captured and hanged on November 15 1895 on a mango tree ( MwembeKunyonga)
THE HEHE RESISTANCE (1891 – 1898)
This was a resistance that was waged by the Hehe under Chief Mkwawa (Mkwanyika) to fight against the Germans at Uhehe. The Hehe Resistance was a remarkable war in the German history as far as the colonization of Tanganyika is concern. This is because the war took a long time than other resistances that faced Germany in Africa.
Mkwawa fought the Germans in order to safeguard his political and economic interests. This was due to the fact that, the German traders interfered the trade in his area.
Mkwawa decided to block the trade caravans which were passing in his area. This tendency provoked the Germans who decided to react against Mkwawa. At the beginning, Mkwawa wanted to make compromise with the Germans as he sent delegates to meet the Germans Officials who were at the, however the German killed those delegates.
This made Mkwawa to respond in the same way where in 1891, he killed German Commander Emily Von Zelewiksy and hi soldiers. Therefore the Germans were seriously defeated in the first attack.
The Germans reorganized for another attack where in 1894 they attacked Uhehe and managed to capture Kalenga, which was Mkwawa’s capital.The war continued for four years until 1898 when the Hehe succumbed to the German colonial rule.
However, Mkwawa could not accept the same of surrendering, he shot himself. The German soldier found Mkwawa already dead and decided to cut off his head and took it to Germany.
THE NYAMWEZI RESISTANCE (1891 – 1893)
It was a small – scale resistance waged by the Nyamwezi in Western Tanganyika. The resistance took place between 1891 and 1893.The Nyamwezi people were led by Isike to fight against the German colonial rule. Isike led the Nyamwezi people to defend his political sovereignty and economic interests.
The Germans threatened his position, as they wanted to control the Long distance which was the backbone of Isike’s economy. The Nyamwezi fought bravely and managed to resist the German’s attacks. However in 1893 the Nyamwezi were defeated and Isike decided to shoot himself rather than being captured by the Germans.
THE YAO RESISTANCE (1890 – 1899)
This was a resistance undertaken by the Yao under the leader, Machemba to fight against the Germans. This occurred after introduction of hut tax by the Germans but the Yao refused to pay the hut tax.
The Germans decided to attack them but at the initial stage, Machemba won the Germans attempts. In 1899, the Germans sent an ultimatum which forced him to surrender out Machemba refused and continued to resist the German Colonial rule.
Therefore in July 1889, the Germans decided to apply their Military force and as a result they occupied Machemba’ s fort and imprisoned his followers. Machemba himself had no any other choice rather than escaping to Mozambique.