Many nations faces different problems  man made  one and others being influenced by natural phenomenon .Besides of these problems, facing  human races also the needs of the people differs in  space and time as well.

That means there should be some measures in addressing problems facing the human being and fulfilling some needs of people in order to attain a full International peace and understanding. But before going in details one must be familiar with the concept.

International peace and understanding is the situation where there is positive interrelationship among of the people all over the world. These interrelationships should entails absence of political instability, Terrorism, wars, natural calamities such as famine (food insecurity), diseases, flood human right violation, poverty and military aggression against other nation. (Mshiu, 2000) in brief International peace and understanding is conceptualized as the situation where there is absence of military conflicts, hunger, poverty diseases and natural calamities.

But in very ordinary situation international peace and understanding is unattainable because the world is still been subjected with environmental degradation, food insecurity, poverty, violation of human rights, diseases and political conflicts /political instabilities

The causes of conflicts in Africa

Africa countries are ruined with political instability since their independence. A number of incidents over political instabilities have been reported from many African countries.  The following are seemingly factors for political instabilities in Africa.

Religious frictions, Religious friction has caused a lot of conflicts in Africa especially between Muslim and Christianity, and between extreme Muslims and non- extreme Muslims. These conflicts have reported in Nigeria, Sudan and Somalia (between Al-Shabaab militia and the government) and Boko Haram of Nigeria.

Tribalism. There has been extremely tribalism in many African countries which induce conflict because of favoritism in accessing the national resources. This tribalism has been motivating killing of each other example Rwanda and Burundi are dominated by Hutu and Tutsi. Their long lasting conflicts culminated into Rwanda Genocide of 1994, Conflicts have occurred several times in Kenya because of ethnism between Luo, Kikuyu and Kamba.

Border Conflicts. Boarder Conflict has profoundly accelerating war in Africa. For example Uganda claimed the part of River Kagera to be its possession by 1978. The conflict resulted into what was termed as Kagera war between Uganda and Tanzania, but, also border conflict occurred between Eritrea and Ethiopia in 2000 which led to war between the two countries.

Emergence of dictatorship governments, in Africa several dictators have witnessed in time perspective .These dictators have enhanced emancipation struggle and opposition from their opponents .Also they have had abused human rights at great extent , the notable dictators included Siad Mohamed Bale, (Somalia) ,Idd Amin Dada ( Uganda ) Samuel Doe ( Liberia ), Mongstu Mariam ( Ethiopia ) and Bokassa ( Central Africa Republic).

Unfair elections. Africa has been vulnerable with unfair elections where by the ruling parties becomes reluctant to a accept changes even when they fail in general elections. The Conflict which emerges after general election causes the massacre of people and refugee movement. For example, conflict emerged after general election in Kenya and Zimbabwe in 2007 and 2008 respectively.

Corruption. Corruption causes conflict in Africa because it stimulates opposition of the mass against their leaders. Africa continent has many leaders who are corrupt, these leaders have enhanced poor provision of social services, bogus contracts on investment with partner countries have been signed as well as lack of transparent and accountability among the government leaders. This triggers conflict which lead war or imprisonment of the opponents for example Fredrick Chiluba(Zambia) and Mobutu Seseseko (Zaire) have mentioned as corrupt leaders by their countries (Raia Mwema, 149: 2010).

Neo – Colonialism. Through neo colonialism Western nations (donors) have been stimulating conflict in Africa. They have been interfering in internal affairs of many Africa countries .Besides the Western countries have been making alliance and collaboration with opponents groups (rebels) against the ruling government. Neo – colonialism therefore stimulates conflicts in Africa because of relationship which exists between the two.

Conflicts over natural resources. This has been very common in the bordering countries, which share some natural resources like natural gas, oil and other minerals. The conflicts of this nature tend to occur due to misunderstanding arise on the exploitation and utilization of such resources especially when there is no clear governing policy. A good example is the conflict that were likely to occur between Congo (DRC) and Uganda over the oil reserves along the border, also the same conflict is still going on between Kenya and Somalia.

However, Conflicts in Africa has led many impacts such as refugees migration, poverty, mass killing, displacement of families, poor utilization of resources due to lack of a good environment for investments and so forth.

Strategies in place for conflict resolution in Africa

Some Strategies have been put in place and used in many parts of Africa to address conflicts as follows:-

The civil education have been provided in many parts of Africa ,syllabus have been adopted to teach pupil and students on conflict resolution .Besides, education on how to avoid tribalism has been designed in Rwanda from time when  Rwanda Genocides occurred in 1994.

Arbitration and negotiations. Through AU (African Union) diplomatic arbitration and negotiations strategy has been used in the place with conflicts for example SADC diplomatic officers did it in Zimbabwe Conflict, president Jakaya Kikwete and UN dignitaries did arbitration and negotiation to end conflicts which emerged after general election in Kenya

Military aggression, African Union Army has been intervening in the place where negotiations and education strategies have failed .The African Army (Military) has interfered in place like Somalia (Ugandan army) and Rwanda (Rwandan army).Beside, Tanzania army used aggression against undemocratic government in Anjuan (Comoro) which exiled illegal government of Mohamed Bakari.

Sanctions imposition. Sanctions are official order that limits trade, contact with others, denial purchasing and humanitarian aid. Sanctions are both social, economic and political one .It has been fixed in many countries of Africa for example against apartheid regime in South Africa, was also done in Zimbabwe and against Mohamed Bakar’s government. Sanction has been for enforcing these nations to adjust their leadership by introducing rule of law and democratic principles.

Extra ordinary punishment to an offenders  .Also defaulters of intentional law like dictators and leaders   who violate human rights, punishment and warrant to be answerable has been rendered by international Court of Justice and International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) which deals with proceeding of Rwanda Genocide cases .T

he victims of human right violation have been punished like Charles Tailor and Rwandan leaders who precipitated Rwanda Genocide of 1994.Omary  Ally- Bashir of Sudan has hot fingers already pointed to him , for answerable on violation of human right in Darfur. But also Kenyan leaders who caused death after Kenya general election have case in International Court of justice. This strategy has caused threat to other leaders who intend to violate human right.

The Validity of the strategies for conflict resolutions in Africa

The purpose is to test if the strategies for conflicts resolution in Africa are valid or if at all they have contributed to lessen some conflict

Education, the truth is that many pupils and students through their education institutes have taught on how to avoid tribalism, but also mass median have preaching national unity in countries such as Rwanda, Burundi and Tanzania. People have changed with this strategy. However it has been not self sufficient, because not all citizens can access to mass media and formal education.

Arbitration and negotiation, it has employed in Liberia, Kenya, Zimbabwe, Rwanda and Burundi. It has become vital tool for conflict resolutions .But however, there still in need great effort to solve some conflicts in Darfur, Somalia, Uganda, DRC and Nigeria through table negotiation.

Military aggressions, it is firmly strategy because induces the use of violence. Many impacts have come in as the result of using this strategy for example indiscrimination killing of innocent people, destruction of properties and refugees migration. Use of military should not be taken as good strategy for conflict resolution because it has been used in many countries but it has failed to respond on  International peace and understanding for example in Darfur  ,Somalia  Afghanistan and Iraq .

Use of sanctions, Isolation of a country politically economically and socially is valid strategy for conflict resolution, but also is coupled with a number of impacts such as torturing of the mass citizen through denial to travel, denial accessing to social service like medicine but also engaging in international trade. However, this strategy has caused a great change of victim’s behaviors example North Korea, Zimbabwe and Apartheid regime in South Africa.

Imprisonment of the victims .This punishments have been given to many victims of human right violation but it has targeted few people and live majority. Therefore it   should be designed to target some leaders in the whole cabinet  not a single person for example the issue of Darfur  ,Sierra Leone and other is not the work of Ally Bashir and Charles Tailor alone respectively but there are  hands of other leaders from Africa and  outside Africa who precipitates the conflicts.

Before application of any resolution’s strategy for any conflict, a  critical scrutiny should be done to determine its advantages and disadvantages because other resolutions like use military interventions and application of sanction affect much the well being of the innocent civilians .Consequently, they are always becomes the victims of death , starvation and humiliations. In other words use of aggression and sanctions affect innocent people rather than the government officials and leaders who are always the main cause of such punishment.


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