Home BIOLOGY TOPIC 5: HUMAN IMMUNO DEFICIENCY HIV / AIDS

TOPIC 5: HUMAN IMMUNO DEFICIENCY HIV / AIDS

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HUMAN IMMUNO DEFICIENCY HIV / AIDS

HUMAN IMMUNO DEFICIENCY HIV / AIDS

HUMAN IMMUNO DEFICIENCY ACQUIRED IMMUNO DEFICIENCY SYNDROME (AIDS) AND SEXUAL TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS 

 BIOLOGY FORM 4

Relationship Between HIV, AIDS and STIs

Defference between HIV, AIDS and STIs
Distinguish between HIV, AIDS and STIs
HIV/AIDS (Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)
Acquired
means “to get from” this means that AIDS is gotten from other people,
Immune” means “protect”, this means that the body is normally protected against many diseases.
Deficiency means “lack: and syndrome means a
group of different symptoms of diseases.
AIDS
is the pandemic disease, which is caused by a certain type of organism called virus.
These types of viruses are called Human Immunodeficiency
Virus.
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus destroys the Immune system, destruction of the immune system makes it easy for the body to be attacked by other
diseases.
It takes a long time for HIV to damage the immune system. It takes years before the body’s immune system is destroyed.
That is why some people may have HIV in their bodies but not look or feel sick yet.
We call these people HIV carriers because they carry the virus in their bodies.
When HIV carriers finally begin to show the sign and symptoms of AIDS then we say they have AIDS.
HUMAN IMMUNO DEFICIENCY HIV / AIDS
STDS and STIs (Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Sexually Transmitted Infections)
STDs and STIs are diseases and infections, which are transmitted through sexual intercourse.
Examples of diseases and infections are: gonorrhea,
syphilis, trichomoniasis, candidiasis, chlamadia, genital herpes and hepatitis B.
The Relationship between HIV and STIs
Explain the relationship between HIV and STIs
The link between HIV and other STIs might seem obvious. After all, the same sorts of risk behaviour are involved.
However, numerous studies seem to indicate that there is a stronger association between HIV and other STIs than would be expected simply from a behavioural link.
Infection with STIs (including syphilis, gonorrhoea and herpes) seems to increase the risk of both acquiring and transmitting HIV over and above a behavioural link.
So does bacterial vaginosis, a condition not formally
classed as an STI, since it appears not to be transmitted, but which is associated with poor sexual health generally.
Depending on the STI involved and the population, studies have reported that having an STI magnifies the risk of acquiring HIV by anything from two to eight times or more.
In the case of people with HIV, having an STI
increases viral loads both in the blood and genital secretions, thus
making people more infectious – even when taking antiretroviral
treatment.

Transmission of HIV/AIDS

HIV can be transmitted by:
  1. Sexual intercourse with infected person

2. Blood Transfusion from an infected person

3. Organ transplant from an infected donor

4. An infected mother to her child during pregnancy, birth or breastfeeding

5. Using unsterilized surgical instrument e.g. scalpel, needles etc

6. Sharing toothbrushes, sharing blades, nail cutter with infected person

Symptoms and Signs of HIV/AIDS
The following are symptoms of HIV/AIDS
  1. Loss of weight

2. Persistent fever that lasts longer than a month

3. Diarrhea

4. Coughing for more that a month

5. Itchy rashes on the skin

6. White layer in the mouth and throat

7. Swollen gland especially in the neck and armpit

8. Genital rashes

9. Shortened breath

Effects of HIV/AIDS
People with AIDS get opportunistic infections and diseases, example of these infections and diseases are:
  1. Chest infection such as pneumonia and Tuberculosis (TB)

2. Brain infection leading to mental confusion

3. Sever headaches and fits (seizures)

4. Stomach infection leading to diarrhea lasts for weeks

5. Skin cancer known as carposis sarcoma

Counseling and Voluntary Testing (CVT)

The concept of Counselling and Voluntary Testing

Explain the concept of counselling and voluntary testing

Counselling and voluntary test is the process that is undertaken when a person wants to find out if she/he is affected with HIV.
Because it is voluntary, a person who think they might have HIV decide on their own whether they want to have the test done or not.
If the individual decided to go ahead with testing they will have the opportunity to discuss the test with a trained counselor.
Most clinics use rapid accurate scientific tests that make the result available, usually within twenty minutes after the test has been performed.
HUMAN IMMUNO DEFICIENCY HIV / AIDS
Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) for HIV is an efficient internationally recognized approach for people to find out their HIV status at a VCT center.
VCT has become one of the most effective and popular ways of
diagnosing people who may have been exposed to the virus or who have been infected.
The Significance of CVT in the Control and Prevention of HIV/AIDS and STIs Outline the significance of CVT in the control and prevention of HIV/AIDS and STIs

VCT is an important tool for preventing the spread of HIV especially in communities where the epidemic is widespread.

The following are the importance of counseling voluntary test:

It allows adolescents to find out their own HIV status in order to evaluate their behavior and its consequences.

VCT clinics usually have 45 minutes counseling sessions that provide information about HIV and AIDS and testing process

VCT can help improve advocacy and reduce stigma by giving people the opportunity to talk anonymously and confidentially with a counselor about their HIV status

HUMAN IMMUNO DEFICIENCY HIV / AIDS

The Procedures and Techniques of CVT for HIV/AID

Explain the procedures and techniques of CVT for HIV/AIDS

There are three main steps in VCT, as explained below:
First Step:
There is a session of pre-test counseling where questions about
HIV/AIDS and the test are discussed and answered by the counselor.
Thecounselor will help the individual determine whether testing is
appropriate given the information that is shared with them about the reason the individual wanted to be tested.
Sharing information about their past sexual behaviors will help the counselor determine whether testing is appropriate.
HUMAN IMMUNO DEFICIENCY HIV / AIDS
After making their assessment, if the counselor deems it appropriate for the person to take the test they should:

Describe the test and how it is performed

Explain AIDS and the way infection is spread

Discuss the ways to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS

Explain the confidentiality of the test results

Discuss the meaning of the possible test results

Ask what impact you think the result of the test will have on them

Discuss whom they might share their results with

Discuss the importance of telling their sex partners and/or drug using partners if the result are positive

HUMAN IMMUNO DEFICIENCY HIV / AIDS

Second Step:
When the person decided to have the HIV test they must sign a consent form before the test is administered.
Informed consent is the crucial part of the VCT process and it is important that the individual is aware of their right to refuse any medical procedure, to be informed about it and to agree to it.
There is a statement which they should be asked to read beforehand stating that they have been informed about the HIV-antibody test procedure, that they understand and have given their consent to have the test performed.
Third Step:
After the test has been done, the counselor gives the results to the person in the post-test counseling session.
(It usually takes around fifteen to twenty minutes after the test has been administered for the results to be ready).
If they are found to be HIV positive (meaning that they have HIV) then they are referred to a medical specialist and other counselor in order to aid them in receiving treatment and support.

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