The following below shows how you can answer questions concerning with Novels, plays and poetry scholarly.
To cement your competences in this career, some tips have been placed for any reader of these manuscripts to gather with possible examples drawn from different NECTA examinations. These tips include;
- For a question that demands a candidate to demonstrate on themes/content or Message. In answering questions of this kind a candidate should adhere to the following key guidelines;
(i) Candidate has firstly to give the meaning on the key word housed (used) in that question this has to be under the introduction part. Then indicates the books if it is novels or plays that will be used to authenticate his/her arguments or poems to be used. When citing the books or poetry strictly adhere to proper citation procedures. This is to say the title of the book/poetry has to be written in capital letters and if a candidate opts to write it by using small letters he/she must ensure that such title is followed by underlined. Then give the name of the author if it is novel, playwright for plays and poet if it is poems.
(ii) After that, a candidate has to start explaining one book after the other. It is strictly prohibited to give your points basing on both books since each book has to be explained differently.
(iii) The proper way of answering should follow this format; first, a candidate has to give the point, explain its meaning, and show how such particular point has been used in the book, then relate with the contemporary society and finally provide a concluding statement. This has to be done in each point.
(iv) For a poetry, a candidate has to authenticate his/her arguments by citing some verses that prove a given points.
- Finally, make sure that you provide relevant conclusion basing on the subject matter.
Once you have completed explaining the first book/poem you should also jump to the next book (novel/play) or poetry. You can use words like “apart from the above novel, also the something can be evidenced under…. Or similarly, the play/novel….. or coming to another poem which is …. Or you can decide the proper style to use. But care should be taken in order to bring good flows of the ideas.
- Make sure that you use good grammatical English supported by tenses. Also your handwriting has to be in a way that it attracts the reader to read your work properly. To achieve this make sure that you maintains neatness by avoiding unwanted crossing, your handwriting must be written in a way that you create well shaped with beautiful letters with well spaces.
- Once you have completed your work before handling it to the invigilators make sure that you proof reading your work to see whether there are some incorrect spellings and grammatical errors in your work
SAMPLE QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS ON NOVELS
Using two novels you have read under this section explain how the behaviors of some characters affect the welfare of themajority in the society. (Give four points from each novel).
Characters are living things especially human beings, and animals and non living things which portrays different behaviors of people in the society. The novelists show different behaviors of some of the characters affecting the welfare of the majority in the society. This can be shows with reference to PASSED LIKE A SHADOW by Bernard Mapalala and A WREATH OF FATHER MAYER by the novelist S. N. Ndunguru.
In the novel of PASSED LIKE A SHADOW, the novelist has shown ADYER’S behaviors affecting the welfare of the people in the society. Some of their behavior include;
Drunkardness, this has been shows how Adyeri was a person who was drinking alcohol so too much this situation led him to be chased at St. Leo High school where he was the head master, due to this his family become poor to the extent that they could not get food and fire wood, this have been shown when Alaah came to visit Amoti and Adyeri the whole family had not food or firewood.
Loving other women (womanizer). Also this behavior of Adyeri has shown affecting Amoti his wife when Adyeri become and went to Birungi as his concubine due to this Adyeri become a victim of the disease (H.I.V) which also caused Amoti to become a victim of HIV/ AIDS and due to this he had affected the welfare of his wife and the whole family as both died.
Adyeri’s cruelty also this has been shown affecting other people’s welfare especially when Amoti was being beaten by Adyeri when Amoti was against Adyeri’s action of beating his children even when they had not committed any mistake Adyeri was beating them especially when he came at home drunk.
Peer pressure, this is the influence to do something. Somebody can influence you doing something with different intention some influence with good wills while others with bad wills. Peer pressure is one the behavior of David’s father which he influenced his son David to go in clubs to have love with others due to this both of them were affected by HIV/AIDS and at last they both died this had affected the welfare of David due to the influence of his father.
Also in the novel of the WREATH FOR FATHER MAYER has portrayed the behaviors of different characters which affect the welfare of many people. These behaviors include
Irresponsibility of government, this involves the situation where by somebody do not fulfill his or her own duties. Due to the irresponsibility among the leaders in the government people suffer a lot. This has been shown by the people of Mkongo parish how they are suffering of Cholera glue to the water they are taking enclosing in domestic activities this is the responsibility of the government which is causing people to suffer the consequences.
Polygamy among the members of the society, also this is one of the behaviors of different characters like Bwana pima who has many wives and his children do not go to school the situation which is affecting the welfare of the people especially his children, this also leads into poverty.
Superstitious beliefs, this is also the behavior of some members in different societies which affect the welfare of many people. Superstition also is one of the problems in our country. In the novel this has been shown by Adolph who belief that his child has been bewitched by his grandmother the situation which affect the welfare of people in the society.
Ignorance among the people also Ignorance as the situation where somebody does things which he or she do not understand affect the welfare of others in the society. Ignorance among the people has been shown by many members of Mkongo parish who do not know the main cause of cholera. This situation affected many people as many of them died.
Therefore different people in different societies should be educated so that they can acquire education through mass media so that their behaviors especially bad behavior like polygamy and Ignorance can not affect the welfare of the people negatively.
With reference to two (2) novels or short stories, analyse the sources of conflicts the writers present.
PASSED LIKE A SHADOW
- Parent’s cruelty. In the passed like a shadow, the conflict between Adyeri and his wife at the beginning of the book is mainly caused by the father’s behavior of cruelty. He is shown in the book giving his son Atwoki a sound beating without considering his age as a result of accidentally splitting his food down. This brings a serious conflict between Adyeri and his wife Amoti.
- Unfaithfulness in marriage issues. This is another source of conflict in this book. There is a very serious family conflict between Adyeri and his wife Amoti following Adyeri’s womanizing behavior. Adyeri is portrayed in the book to be unprincipled womanizer who is unfaithful in marriage as he is shown having an affair with his concubine Birungi. This causes a serious conflict between him and his wife.
- Struggle for area of settlement. There is an element of conflict discussed in the book between Tanzania and Uganda during Kagera war. This was due to the struggle for area of settlement between these two countries. This can be realized in the book when Tonto and his fellow drunkards discuss the source of aids during Adyeri’s death.
- Fear of poor custom of superstition. In the book, Vicky is shown to have a conflict with her husband Aliganyira when she was forced to go to the witchdoctor for the sake of having a baby. Vicky is shown at first refusing her husband’s idea as she was very afraid of such poor beliefs. As a result of this poor belief, Vicky gets HIV instead of a baby.
- Presence of outdated customs. The main source of the conflicts found in the story is presence of outdated custom of female genital mutilation. There are some people such as Makalay, Yah Posseh and other bondo members support this custom while other people like Ade Jones, Dr. Koroma and Oyah are against it. As a result of this, these two groups of people are not in good terms.
- Disloyalty between lovers. In the book, there is a serious conflict between Olabisi and her ex-boyfriend Eddy. This is shown in the book when Eddy reveals a secret in the court that he had ever had sex with Olabisi two times. This makes Olabisi very angry because it may convince the judge to conclude that Olabisi is to be circumcised in order to help her control her sexual passions. As a result of this, Olabisi decides to break-up with Eddy.
- Negligence of Bondo sacred customs. There is a very stiff conflict between the villagers and Olabisi. The source of this cocnflict is the negligence of Bondo sacred customs done by Olabisi. In the book, Olabisi is shown looking down upon the two circumcised village girls namely Rugiatu and Salay, she fights with these circumcised girls and stripping them naked. This is a very serious offence in Bondo village since a Gborka (uncircumcised) girl is strictly forbidden even to get close to the circumcised ones. As a result of this, the members of Bondo village rise up demanding Olabisi to be circumcised.
- Broken relationships between parents. Another source of conflict in the book is the broken relationships between parents. For instance in the novel, Ade breaks up with Makalay, the mother of Olabisi. This brings a very serious problem between these two parents as each parent is having personal interest in the child which contradicts the other. Makalay is showm very interested in circumcising her daughter in order to help her control her sexual appetite for boys while Ade Jones, the father of Olabisi is strictly opposed to this, as a result, a very serious conflict arises between the two.
Using two novels show how the authors have portrayed the struggle made by women in struggling for their rights.
To struggle means to make forceful efforts to get free. In other words, to struggle means to strive under difficult circumstances to do something. The term right on the other hand means a power, privilege or title that someone may claim legally or that is morally due to him. As far as this question is concerned, for many years in Africa, women have been denied by men many of their rights and so they now try to fight for them. In the course of attempting this question, the two novels PASSED LIKE A SHADOW and UNANSWERED CRIES by B. Mapalala and O. Conteh respectively can be used as follows.
To begin with the novel PASSED LIKE A SHADOW, the writer portrays in his work how women struggle for their different rights as follows.
Women are shown to struggle for the right of decision making. For many years in different parts of the African continent, women have been denied by men the right of making decisions both at family level and national level. In this novel for instance, Amoti is shown struggling to participate in making decision when discussing Vicky’s marriage proposal to Munyamahanga. In the novel, Adyeri is shown to rule his house with tyrannical regime. He is a dictator with absolute power to make personal decisions as he never gave even a slight chance his wife Amoti to make decisions concerning family matters.
Apart from that, women are also portrayed to struggle to get equal employment opportunities. For many decades, African traditions consider a woman as a house mother with no right to get employed in formal sectors. In the novel, the author shows that some women have now risen up to fight for the right of equal employment opportunities. A good example of this in the novel is Birungi who works as a Secretary at St. Leo’s High school. This indicates great achievement and revolution in some African women.
In addition to that, women are also portrayed to struggle for their rights to be respected and recognized as human beings. This is clearly shown by the writer by using one of his characters Amoti. This is well evidenced in the story when she decides to leave her husband Adyeri alone and went with her children to stay in another village called Katumba. This act can be interpreted that Amoti has reached that decision as a result of being tired of being mistreated, humiliated, beaten, cursed and abused by her husband who was both drunkard and womanizer who never ever respected her and she now wants to restore her dignity as a human being.
Out of that, the writer continues to show how women struggle for their rights by using Vicky. In the novel, Vicky is shown to struggle for her right to choose for self the husband of her choice. Most African traditional customs deprive women of their rights to choose their future husbands. In the book, Vicky is shown to introduce Akena to the Uncle as her spouse but the man (Akena) was rejected for no good reason. At the end of the day, Vicky decides to go and stay with Aliganyira as his wife. All of this indicates Vicky’s struggle to choose the husband of her choice.
Turning to the second novel titled UNANSWERED CRIES the writer O. Conteh also shows various struggles done by women to get their rights, some of them are as follows.
Women are shown struggling for the rights to get education. The author O. Conteh has tried to show this in his book. In the novel, many women are portrayed to hold important careers. The story is full of professional women such as woman lawyer Oyah, Doctor Asiatu Koroma and Makalay who is a school teacher. The increase of large number of educated women indicates the fact that women have now gained new awareness on the importance of education in life. We should encourage such development since we know for sure that educating a woman is as equal as educating the entire society.
On top of that, women are also shown struggling for the right of owning properties. This also has been one of the serious challenges facing most of the African women. The African society does not provide good atmosphere to favor women to own their own properties rather it makes then dependent on men. Contrary to this, in the novel Oyah is shown to own properties as a result of her law practice. The writer shows that it is Oyah who has been supporting Ade’s family with basic needs the moment Ade Jones did not have a regular job to be in a position to support the family.
Moreover, women have also been portrayed in the novel fighting for their right of association. Any human being regardless male or female has the right to associate with the societal members. In the novel, a young girl Olabisi is shown being denied by her father to enjoy the right of association such that she sometimes had to sneak out of the house and went to stay out late on weekends with some of her friends. Here the parents should observe the rights of children that they should be allowed to associate with their friends so as to enjoy their childhood plays, jokes and exchange their ideas.
Last but not the least, the women are shown to oppose being used as tools for entertainment. This again is another challenge facing many women in our societies. They are sexually abused by men regarding them as tools for sexual pleasure. In this book, Olabisi provides a very good example as a strong woman who is courageous enough to refuse being used by men as a tool for sexual pleasure. This is clearly proved in the book when she cuts her sexual relationship with Eddy, the young boy who proved himself to be hypocrite, untrustworthy as well as unfaithful.
To conclude, African culture has been experiencing many challenges as a result of globalization. The values which may be good should be entertained and maintained while those which may appear bad should be discouraged and abolished. For a number of years women have been the front liners in the destruction of African culture but to some extent nowadays, a group of women have emerged with good ideas and awareness to restore women dignity that has been covered under the red soil by men. Men should respect women and recognize them as beautiful flowers or fruit tree with lots of fruits, if we treat them gently, the whole society will benefit from those fruits.
Using two novels or short stories you have studied under this section show different messages the authors present. (Give four points from each reading)
Message are the information we get from any work of art. Message is among of the elements of content. Titles of the books enable reader to understand the massage. By referring to two novels “Un answered cries”, and “Passed like a shadow” the first part regards the discussion to “Unanswered cries”.
Female genital mutilation is a negative practice since it leads to dangerous or brought bad effects to people such as spread of disease, stigmatization and complication during delivery. The society must abolish FGM because it can also cause death. From the novel the daughter of lawyer from the Oyah side her daughter died when she is 10 years due to female genital mutilation.
Parents should take good care to their children in the novel Ade is not responsible to his daughter Olabisi, hence Olabisi started attending night clubs at a very young age. Also parents are advised to help each other hand by hand on bearing children.
Conflicts lead to misunderstanding in the family and the society at large. In the novel there are several conflicts but the main conflict is between makaalay and Ade Jones and this is caused due to circumcision, hence makaalay wants her daughter to be circumcised and Ade Jones is against her Ade oppose makaalay. The other conflict is between Olabisi and her Mother
Betrayal leads to separation of couples. In the novel a good example is Eddy who is Olabisi fiancé, he betrayed Olabisi by saying the truth in the court and later Olabisi decided to broke up with him since eddy betrayed her in front or the people which was not good. The next part regards the discussion to “Passed like a shadow”.
Irresponsibility causes drop out from work or Job.in the novel this is showed by Adyeri who is a school head teacher but later he is chased out due to irresponsibility. Adyeri is not responsible with his work he spent much time with his concubines
Children should avoid peer influence in the novel, Vicky and Abooki end up suffering with HIV/AIDS due to being influenced with their friend to start doing so. Vicky is influence by his friend david and then their behavior changed from good so bad as for Atidofu for him is even worse.
Polygamy should be abolished. in the novel Adyeri seems to be a polygamous, hence he goes out with a lot of girls from the society and end up spreading different disease . so due to it causes harmful ST’s and also causes death.
We have to learn how to forgive and to forget. In the novel Amoti did not want to forgive her husband Adyeri due to Amoti is harasses with the behavior of Adyeri that is why she. Ignored him by the time Adyeri is sick that not good because forgiveness is a better revenge Amoti is supposed to forgive Adyeri so as Adyeri’s soul to rest in peace.
To wrap it out, many literary artist writers or choose the titles of the books to what is reflect in the book and the society at large.
Using two novels or short stories you have studied under this section prove that in any literary works, the titles enables the readers to understand the message the writer wants to convey. (Give four points from each reading)
Titles are the headings written on the outer coves of the books to reflect what is inside the book. It is true that titles enable the readers to understand the message.(s) the writer wants to convey to the society.
In answering this questions will use the novel “Unanswered cries “by Osman Conteh and
“Passed like a shadow” by B. Mapalala
In The novel “Un answered cries” The title enables the readers to understand the massage. The title “Un answered cries “indicate the cries of different people of the book which mint Unanswered. The cries of these people could not be listened by other people. These are the following;
The cry of the spirits to circumcise
Olabisi went Unanswered ; It was believed in the tribe of Makalay that a a girl must be circumcised according to Bondo women society a girl had to be circumcised according to the directives of the spirits . But in the book it is shown that Olabisi was not circumcise until they went into the court but the court could not allow then (Bonda women) to circumcise Olabisi. Therefore,Makalay told Olabisi that, she had gone against their spirits.
Edward coles’(Eddys’) cry to be forgiven pardoned by Olabisi went unanswered. This is because Eddy had betrayed Olabisi at the court by telling the people at the court that she had lied with Olabisi At the outside of the court Eddy was asking for the forgiveness from Olabisi for betraying her but Olabisi could not listen to him. They had a pre – marital relationship and the Eddy’s cry went unanswered.
Makalay’s cry to circumcise her daughter went unanswered. Makalay wanted to circumcise Olabisi at the Bondo Women society but Olabisi had escaped after the decision from the court by Judge Lansana Kanu that Olabisi should not be circumcised againat her will. After this decision Olabisi had escaped from home. Therefore Makalay’s cry to circumcise Olabisi went unanswered.
The cry of Bondo women society to support Makalay at the court went unanswered Bondo women society went at the court so as to support their fellow woman,Makalay so as to follow this traditions. Therefore after the refusal from the court that Olabisi should not be circumcised against her will, the cry of the Bondo Women went unanswered.
In the novel “Passed Like a shadow” the writer has used this title to show different people who passed like a shadow and they left nothing to their families after some of them to be affected by HIV/AIDS or “slim”
Adyeri passed like a shadow; Formerly Adyeri was a school Headmaster at St.Leo’s High school. Adyeri left nothino to his family after being affected by HIV/AIDS or “slim” as they were calling it. It acquired it from several woman in the street as he had an extra – marital relationship with other woman. He left his family living a poor life and his children suffering from poor upbringing.
Abooki was passed like a shadow by HIV/AIDS; this was after John a man from a rich family raped her John had told Abooki to geo to his family to great him and he dropped some drugs into Abooki’s drink and after Abooki had become drunkard, John raped his. When Abooki went to take a medical checkup she was HIV negative and she had no pregnancy. Therefore HIV/AIDS passed like a shadow.
Atwoki passed also like a shadow. Atwoki was a talent footballer of the Ugandan National team and they had taken African cup of Nations. But because of poor upbringing and peer pressure from his friend, David he started pre – marital relationship with girls like Edda and he acquired HIV/AIDS. Ha did not benefit his family much and also, through he was named “Fort, Portal Bullet” he could not benefit much more his national team.
Aliganyira and David’s father also passed like a shadow. David’s father was rich and he used to pick up girls everyday like clothes hence he acquire HIV/AIDS. Also Aliganyira was rich and after Vick had acquired HIV/AIDS from the witch doctor he also acquired it. This was because of the influence of power.
Therefore, titles plays a very big role in enabling the readers to read and understand the massage the writer wants to convey. The writers should select proper titles which will lead the readers to understand the massage.
Describe two (2) characters from the novels you have done in this section (one from each novel) that you liked very much and explain why you liked them.
The term characters refer to the persons in the novel or play used by the writers of a work of art to represent social realities. The term novel is one of the three genres of written literature with an invented story in prose, long enough to fill a complete book; the other two genres are plays and poetry.
The two characters that I like very much are Olabisi in the novel “Unanswered cries” by Osman Conteh and Abooki in the novel “Passed like a shadow” by Bernard Mapalala as follows.
Starting with the first novel “Unanswered cries”, the the first reason as to why I like Olabbisi is that, she is hardworking girl, for example in this book, it is shown that at the beginning of the book, despite Olabisi being a city girl, she is shown helping her mother doing domestic chores such as washing dishes and drawing water from the stream. In our societies, there are some people who are hard working and others are lazy. It is better to abandon bad behavior of laziness so as to promote human development.
Apart from that, another reason as to why I like Olabisi is her courage. This is the ability to control fear when facing danger, pain and opposition bravery. In this book, Olabisi is shown to be very courageous as shown defeating Yah Posseh’s daughters while returning from stream of water. Also the act of running alone iun the thick wood proves how courageous this girl is. Even in our societies, there are some people with characters of courageous just like Olabisi. Having courage is a good device that can be effectively used in fighting against various evils in the society.
Not only is that but also another reason as to why I like Olabisi her awareness. In this novel for instance, the author shows Olabisi to have some elements of awareness. The act of Olabisi going against her mother’s traditional practice of female genital mutilation shows Olabisi’s awareness on the danger associated with this traditional practice. In our society, there can be found people with awareness of various social wrongs like corruption, poverty as well as drug abuse just to mention a few. Awareness is a good tool as it can promote socio-economic development.
Similarly, in the second novel “Passed Like shadow” the character that I like very much is Abooki. The first reason as to why I like her is that she is a hardworking girl. In the book, it is shown that when the parents are not in, it was up to Abooki to prepare the evening meal for the whole family. Though the girl was over-worked, she was as hardworking asa donkey.
In additional to that I like Abooki because she is shown to be the only person nursing her mother until she passes away. It is a rationale that young girls and boys should learn from this character by serving those who surround them. This is because in our societies thousands of children tend to abandon their parents on their death beds. Therefore Abooki is a good girl who deserves to be emulated in the society.
Furthermore, I like Abooki as she is a girl who is not affected with the influence of peer pressures. For example in the book, it is shown that, despite her cousin sister Vicky being influenced by her two companions Kunihira and Tusiime to engage in prostitution, her blood brother Atwoki being influenced by his friend David to engage in womanization, Abooki was not affected by this as she remained static and this is one of the reason as to why HIV/AIDS passed her like a shadow. In our societies there are many girls who imitate similarly like Abooki. This is because they behave decently to such an extent that what they care is how to meet their set goals. It is high time for young girls and boys to act as role model by abandoning all bad behavior that my act as an obstacle in meeting their planned goals.
Lastly, I like Abooki as she is the only survivor of HIV/AIDS in Adyeri’s family. For example, the whole family of Adyeri including himself (Adyeri), his wife Amoti, his son Atwoki and his niece Vicky die of AIDS pandemic as a result of different reasons but the only survivor is Abooki and this proves that she is a clean with good qualities, hence god to follow (cope).
Generally speaking, the two characters that I like very much are Olabisi and Abooki found in the two novels “Unanswered cries” and “Passed like a shadow” respectively. These girls played vital role in their societies following mutual respect, good qualities and positive contributions they demonstrated to their societies. In so doing, the new generations especially young boys and girls should emulate their good qualities while abandoning the bad ones if they real aspire to build good societies of tomorrow.
“It is hard to fight against HIV/AIDS because people’s minds are corrupt”. Discuss the statement using one novel and Tanzania experience.
HIV is a viral disease which spreads from one person to another by means of open wound contact, unsecured blood transfusion, sharing of sharp unsterilized tools and also sexual intercourse. It is true the statement that it is hard to fight against HIV/AIDS because people’s mind are corrupt, the validity (truth) of this statement can be clearly proved by using the novel titled “Passed Like a Shadow” by Bernard Mapalala as follows;
Womanization, the term womanization refers to the fact of a man having sexual relationships with many different women. In this novel, the author shows various cause of the spread of HIV/aids one of the causes is womanization.
The author portrays Adyeri who has different sexual partners such as his wife Amoti, Birungi (his concubine) as well as the toothless woman whom he had been drinking with at the local drinking club. Though he was warned by people several times on the danger associated with HIV/AIDS, Adyeri was hard as rock. Due to his behavior, Adyeri infects his wife and they all die of HIV/AIDS. This is very true in our societies in which we live in where some people with behavior like that of Adyeri can be found. It is rational that people should completely abstain themselves from sexual intercourse and if this proves to be impossible, it is better to have a single partner and remain faithful to him or her.
Prostitution. The term prostitution refers to the situation whereby someone especially a woman tends to have several sexual partners who are not legally married to her. In most cases, the question of prostitution involves the act of having sex for money. In the novel, for instance, many people die of HIV/AIDS one of the causes is Prostitution. The author portrays characters like Vicky, Kunihira and Tusiime engage themselves in prostitution so as to get money with which they could enable them to meet their basic needs like food, shelter and clothes just to mention a few. In our society, this is very relevant in a sense that there are some special places called brothel where prostitutes uses to sell their bodies especially in big cities like Dar es salaam, Arusha, Mwanza and Mbeya. Prostitution is dangerous practice which speed up the spread of HIV/AIDS there we should discourage it if we are to be HIV/AIDS free.
Superstition. The term superstition refers to the situation or belief that particular events happened in a way that cannot be explained by reason or science. The problem of superstition seems to have deep roots in many third world countries particularly in African continent. The local belief of superstition is one of the main causes of the spread of HIV/AIDS simply because there is the question sharing sharp objects. In the novel, the author shows that Vicky and her husband are portrayed to have HIV/AIDS because they visited to the witch doctor to have a charm where the witch doctor uses same knife to treat the other patients who are the victims of HIV/AIDS. In our society there are also some people who acquire the disease the same way as Vicky and her husband. Thus people are educated on the danger associated on sharing sharp objects like knives, razor blades, pieces of glass pins and scissors.
Ignorance. Ignorance can be defined as the situation in which people are unaware of the vital information about a certain subject. It is also refers as to lack of knowledge or information about something. In the book, people acquired the disease, HIV/AIDS because of ignorance. The author portrays character like David who is ignorant on AIDS in a sense that he believes he can judge whether a girl is a victim or not by just looking through his naked eyes, and therefore, the responsible woman like Edda who works as a Public Relation officer cannot have HIV/AIDS. Similarly, the drunkard are ignorant about HIV/AIDS because they regard Atwoki cannot acquire the disease because he is an international footballer.
It is due this ignorance that David and his friend Atwoki acquire HIV/AIDS. Many people in our society face similar problem. Since ignorance is an enemy of the people therefore it should be discouraged by any means.
Alcoholism (drunkenness). Alcoholism is refers to the medical condition caused by drinking too much alcohol regularly. The term drunkenness on the other hand is the state of having drunk so much alcohol that is impossible to think or speak clearly. In the novel, the author shows that alcoholism is the one of the factors which speeds up the spread of HIV/AIDS. This is because when a person is drunk, he or she becomes sexually interested and it is impossible for a drunken person to use protection (condom) during an affair. A good example of this is Adyeri who is one night found in a very embarrassing situation with a toothless woman whom he had been drinking with at the local drinking club. Eventually, Adyeri and other character die of HIV/AIDS. This behavior should be strongly condemned in our society as it is of no any benefit to our life.
Generally, it may be concluded that fighting against HIV/AIDS need self devotion because people’s minds are corrupt. This is due to the fact that some people’s minds are corrupted with womanization, prostitution, superstition, ignorance as well as alcoholism. In this way, the author has shown that despite tireless efforts made to the society by educating them to avoid the spread of the disease, still there are some people with corrupted minds who keep on respecting evil practices which ultimately lead them to acquire the disease.
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