What is an essay?

An essay is a short piece of writing on a particular subject, written in order to be published. Essay writing is a process of presenting an arguments, opinions, ideas, feelings and experience in the form of writing. The essay finds a good way to write his/her composition so that what they believe can well understand by the people in other places.

What is a composition?

A composition refers to a shot text that is written at school, college etc as a part of exercise. The composition requires an individual to generate his/her own ideas to narrate, describe, argue or expose something or event.

It also refers to a piece of writing on a particular topic, event or person. It can be expository, narrative, argumentative or descriptive compositions. Composition can be written at collage, school, and university as a part of studies or assignment given on a particular course. In writing composition a student is supposed to generate his/her own ideas and use them to narrate, describe, explain, argue, or persuade a certain thing or event.

Composition involves writing essays, letter, poems, stories, debates, speeches, dialogue, which involves a collection of ideas that are organized a good manner /pattern on a given topic or subject.


An essay is divided into three main parts which are:-

(i) The Introduction

This is the beginning of an essay. In this section you should introduce your view or main theme. This part includes the definition of the key words from the given topic. Also the part carries everything concerning the topic which is going to be discussed or explained. E.g. Write a composition about MARALIA, the key word is MARALIA, things to write are: – causes, effects and solution.

(ii) Body of an essay

In this section, you should explain your view or opinions in your own way in at least five paragraphs. This part carries each and every thing concerning the main topic in details. The points are arranged well in this part in a chronological order. The part can carry causes, effects or resolution of a given question.

(iii) Conclusion

In this section, you should summarize what you have talked in the main body.


(i) Before writing an essay, think careful and note down the main points in a piece of paper and set down the various ideas that come to.

(ii) Arrange your thoughts in a logical order because you cannot write good essay without plan.

(iii) Each paragraph should explain different views of your opinion on the same subject. So you should divide your essay into various paragraphs.

(iv)  Use simple language with simple words and simple sentences.

(v)  Avoid punctuations, spelling and grammatical errors (mistakes).

(vi)  Avoid usage of contracted (short) forms. Example: Etc. = Et cetera. Isn’t = is not. Don’t = Do not. Shouldn’t = should not. E.g. = Example.

(vii) Choosing a point of view. A point of view informs us about who tells a story. The story teller can be the first person, the second person or the third person.

 Things to consider when writing a composition


Start with the title, the title should be written in capital letters. The title should be underlined if hand written and bold if type. The title should relate with the topic or subject given. Think of the number of words if it is given. Put your ideas in small but detailed paragraphs. Revise and edit your work carefully. Divide your essay into three parts namely:


which relates to the title i.e. defines, explains the key words from the title.

Main body

This is the main part of the composition. Discuss your ideas in point in relation to the topic or subject given, planned. The main ideas should precede the minor ideas. Consider the logical arrangement of your ideas and points.


Under this part, you may give suggestions, views, opinions on the topic discussed. It should reflect the whole content discussed in your essay.

Write your essay/composition in a good manner, tone and good grammar.

In addition to the above statement, in order to produce a scholarly composition, when writing a composition kindly adheres to the following view points;

  1. Use attractive hand writing, well spaced and beautiful shaped letters roughly, 7-9 words in a single line.
  2. Make your composition easy to read without any constrains
  3. Punctuations should be correctly used.
  4. Vocabularies should correctly be chosen and used.
  5. Make your story as interesting as possible and humor as possible.
  6. To hold the attention of the readers all related ideas should be contained in a single paragraph and properly develop idea from sentence to sentence and paragraph to paragraph.
  7. Before handing over your work to the reader proof read it to ensure that there is no careless mistakes.
  8. Be careful to the way you conclude your composition and make sure that there is a concluding statement.
  9. When you finish writing your composition you should proof read / edit your work, so as to make the work clean and precisely.

Example 1.


Communication is the process of conveying from one person or group to another. Although English is the medium of instruction at school in Tanzania. Most still fails to communicate in this language. The reasons for this failure may be analyzed as follows

English is a foreign language; in this case it poses a big challenge using it in communication among the students. English is not the mother tongue to most students, it is the second or third language, hence students grow up thinking and speaking in another language may be Kiswahili which is much preferred and mostly used because most of people at home on the streets use Swahili language.

Lack of strong foundation in English,  this is another reason as to why majority of fellow students fails to communicate  in English as most of primary schools use Swahili  as their medium of instruction. Also all subjects except English are taught in Swahili in most primary school. As results students miss the foundation in English they keep mastering and getting used to Swahili language.

Lack of English competent teachers, this is because having leant in an environment where  English is not practiced and with poor foundation ,most English teachers are poor in English as well. They cannot communicate in English fluently. The consequence is that they also produce incompetent students.

Lack of practice to most students especially while in school or even beyond the school compound is another reasons behind the failure of students to communicate in English language, in sense that language mastering needs practice. Most of students fail to practice communication in English thoroughly since they come from environments where this language is not spoken or used at all.

Ignorance is another hindrance towards mastering of this language in sense that some students for example those pursuing sciences think that they do not need English much. This is due their ignorance because of masterly of language comes before profession, after all the science written in English also some of the students feel shy to speak English in front of their fellow   thinking that they would lough at them making some mistakes.

Historical point of view has also contributed to the mastery of English language due to the fact that some people say that English is a colonial language, they feel bad to keep on communicating using a language of people who once tortured and ill-treated their fore fathers.

Generally, we have to work in ensuring that we best master English by reading different novels, making practices since English plays much role in different aspects such as in politics, business and indeed cultural practices.



A mother is a female parent of a human. She is simply a woman in relation to her child or children. I really find it very difficult to get proper words to tell how anxious I am to talk about my mother who is always charming and loving to her children.

Next week is my lovely mother’s birthday, and here I am hundreds of miles away! How I wish, I was there to congratulate her in person and share this so happy an occasion. Physically I am here and yet mentally I am there with her. Dear mother, she is always in my thoughts.  

I remember in my childhood days, there was a very frightening incident happened to me which actually makes me always remember and admire my mother the most. It was a Sunday evening when I was at a play ground with my friends. All of a sudden, there emerged three hooded thugs who were on special mission of child kidnap. I couldn’t realize anything as I was deeply occupied in the game. Those hooded thugs came and captured my two friends and I. Muya and Jerry for those were my friend’s names. No sooner had the news of our kidnap entered my mother’s ears than she ran as a mad dog coming for our rescue. My mother kept shouting “Arrest those bastards” she yelled. “The thieves of our children” she continued. Since we were so young, we did not understand anything that was going on.

Those thugs were very threatened by my mother’s shouting such that one of them stopped so as to challenge a fight with her. Luckily enough, my mother was very good at karate and it took her only two minutes to defeat that cursed thug after giving him two tremendous jabs on the neck.

When the other two thugs saw what happened to their fellow, they set us free and disappeared very quickly like a flash of lightening. Thanks God to give me such a lovely, caring, brave, fearless and courageous mother.

Another thing which makes me miss my mother more is her kindness, obedience and generosity to different people. I remember the time the village children gathered at our home place during evening listening to her various beautiful folk stories and provided us all with delicious meals.

There was one night when I was seriously ill. That time my father was not at home, he was outside the country. We were only the two of us in the house located at the middle of Bonde village in Tanga. That midnight my mother carried me on her back to take me to hospital, which was seven kilometers away from the village. Despite the darkness and the terror of the night, my mother seemed not to give it a damn.

We had to cross the jungle known for its famous notorious animals. She walked all the way to hospital with me clinging on her back without getting tired.

I really don’t know what to pay back my lovely mother. She is more than African queen to me. I admire her courage and tolerance. This woman is precious to me more than a gold and diamond a million times. I really love my mother. There is no one in this world like my mother. Happy birthday to you my Mum.


Story writing enables the students to develop competence in skillful way of creativity writing. Normally, a candidate is assigned a task demanding him/her to compose a story basing on the set directives.

When writing any story it is important to note that there is flow of ideas that bring logical series. Equally important, the arrangement of the paragraphs should go along with the facts so as to put points at hand.

If a candidate has been asked to write a story requesting him/her to “write the story ending that is how we became friends”. Such a candidate is supposed to narrate the event that precipitate to their mutual friends. Like, how they met, the place and activity (s) that made them become friend.


In not less than 250 words write an essay on “The accident I witnessed”.

An accident refers to something that happens with unexpected or unintended plan and that often damages something or kills someone. This does not happen intentionally. I happened to witness a motorcycle accident.

First of all, the cause of this accident was over speeding. The bodaboda rider who was riding this motorcycle failed to negotiate the sharp corner. He almost hit and knocked me down. He found himself in a trench.

Another cause of accident as I learned later, this rider had taken about ten packets of Kiroba konyagi and plenty of jungle ram/illicit brew. In other words drunkenness was the cause of this accident. This made him mindless. He was real mad on the road.

The third cause of this accident was reckless riding. This victim was also riding turning his head round to all directions to please the girls along the road who were claiming/applauding him for over speeding. He was boosting and showing off. This added to the first mis-happening.

I was told later by the eye witness that a minute before the accident the rider was on phone with perhaps a passenger who wanted to pick up him. Other people said that the bodaboda had its break discs loose. This is why he failed to apply them when he was approaching the sharp corner.

The consequences of this accident are that the bodaboda rider had his shoulder broken, both limbs dismembered and one arm amputated. I think, the doctor decided to teach him a lesson for he spared his life.

In order to avoid any kind of accidents, all road users should extra careful on the roads. The drivers and riders must possess driving licenses, attend driving schools and adhere to traffic roles without coercion. Otherwise, pedestrians as well should avoid frivolous behavior on the roads in this context.

Example 2

Write a story ending with ……unending journey.


In today life new ideas discoveries and new knowledge’s are being discovered or developed from the older ones to the newer ones. We find ourselves illiterate with many things whether scientifically, socially or commercially. The world of today needs us to study always as new knowledge’s are brought out every day.

In our country Tanzania we begin with primary schools for seven years then we join with secondary studies for four years and thereafter we join with advanced secondary studies for two years before join the university for the first degree, with the competitive world of profession we still need to go for masters’ degree and go for PhD studies.

Most surprisingly, a person with a PhD may also go to attend the other studies of other different professions as he finds himself missing other knowledge on other fields of professions. A doctor may think of studying business despite of having a professional work, the same doctor after completing studies in business may also think to join social science studies. This doctor lacks some knowledge’s on other field of education.

Education is a wide field consists of different professions. Education gives knowledge’s to people so as to master their environment and compete with modern changes. When we need to be educated enough or to get know knowledge’s we need to study always without stopping, thus it is like the ocean. There are so many professions such as teachers, pharmacist, doctors, dentist, engineers, accountant, opticians, journalist, sportsmen’s, politicians, economics and pilots. All these professions are results of education. Someone might be a dentist but may wish to be a driver and some days later he may wish to be politicians and may wish to be more than that with time.

Generally, a matter of being educated is unending journey as we can’t finish studying, we should study always even if we are profession because the new knowledge’s are brought out and the professions are updated. We need to go to school and then. This is unending journey.


  1. Write a story to end ………“That is how we became friends”
  2. Write a story ending …. I will never forget that day ever”



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